I want to create a regression model with the following properties:

  • prediction should be close to target
  • target and prediction should have the same sign
  • small penalty if either target or prediction are close to 0
  • extra penalty if both are far from zero and have opposite sign

Consider the following loss function: $$\mathcal L _\alpha (y, \hat y) = (y - \hat y)^2 - \alpha y\hat y, $$ where $\alpha \geq 0$ parameter.


  • Is it a valid loss function?
  • Does it fulfills the requirements?
  • Can it be improved?
  • Are there any issues with such loss?
  • Have someone tried something similar?
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ The standard quadratic loss satisfies all your criteria. $\endgroup$
    – whuber
    Commented Jul 10, 2023 at 22:50
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ @whuber I think OP's (4) means that, for $x_1,\hat x_1$ and $x_2,\hat x_2$ such that $|x_1-\hat x_1| = |x_2-\hat x_2|$ but, say $x_1,\hat x_1 > 0$ while $x_2 < 0, \hat x_2 > 0$, that we should have $\mathcal{L}(x_1,\hat x_1) < \mathcal{L}(x_2,\hat x_2)$, which is not satisfied by quadratic loss (or any other translation invariant loss). $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 10, 2023 at 23:41
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ dear OP, you could try something like $(y_i-\hat y_i)^2 + \alpha \max(0, -\mathrm{sgn}(y_i) \hat y_i) $, which is convex. $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 10, 2023 at 23:54
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ What is your definition of a loss function for your first bullet point? $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 11, 2023 at 6:36
  • 4
    $\begingroup$ Please post your question about the new loss function as its own question. It deserves a set of answers distinct from those about your first function. $\endgroup$
    – Dave
    Commented Jul 11, 2023 at 12:20

1 Answer 1


I have to admit that I disagree with Dave's answer (but I did upvote it, because it is useful). In my opinion, it makes little sense to consider your loss as a function of two variables when we optimize. After all, we usually cannot influence the true outcome $y$ or its distribution, only our point prediction $\hat{y}$.

Thus, I submit that it is more helpful to think about this as considering your loss as a random variable (through the uncertainty in the outcome $y$) which depends on a variable $\hat{y}$, and trying to understand which value of $\hat{y}$ minimizes, e.g., the expectation of your loss.

I like to investigate things like this through simple simulations. For example, in analogy to your other thread (Loss function that penalizes wrong sign predictions), assume your predictive uncertainty about the outcome can be parameterized as a normal distribution with mean 1 and standard deviation 2. It turns out that the $\hat{y}$ that minimizes the expected loss for $\alpha=1$ is 1.5, i.e., your loss incentivizes us to give a prediction that is higher than the mean. This may well be what you want - but it is important to be aware of this effect.

loss function

R code:

mm <- 1
sd <- 2
xx <- mm+seq(-2*sd,2*sd,by=0.01)

sims <- rnorm(1e6,mm,sd)
alpha <- 1
loss <- sapply(xx,function(yy)mean((sims-yy)^2-alpha*sims*yy))

plot(xx,loss,type="l",xlab="Point prediction",las=1,ylab="Expected loss")
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, I'm aware that it will tend to predict higher (in absolute values) predictions rather than true value. Although, I take that since for the same sign I don't really care about how large deviation is. I proposed another idea in parallel topic link which you have already answered. $\endgroup$
    – vladkkkkk
    Commented Jul 11, 2023 at 14:43

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