I'm looking for the formula to calculate a p-value for statistical hypothesis testing by hand without using the lookup table. I've found something here (Calculating P-Value of a Z-Score without using Z-Table), but I don't really understand the formula. Can someone help me by showing some data and how you come up with a p-value based on that data. So, simply filling in the formula. For a Z-test, T-test or what is feasible. Would be much appreciated!