Suppose we have a model with $n$ data points and $p$ predictors. The model has an $R^2_{\text{adjusted}}=q$.

What sort of distribution does the change in $R^2_{\text{adjusted}}$ have when a random Gaussian predictor is added to the model?

I am assuming that the expected value is zero, since $R^2_{\text{adjusted}}$ is supposed to adjust for predictors that have no explanatory power. But I can't find the answer anywhere, and I'm having trouble working it out myself. ...

  • $\begingroup$ Wikipedia confirms your supposition that the expectation will be zero. The distribution, as a linear transformation of a ratio of sums of squares, tends to be strongly skewed. You might consider beginning with the case of no predictors (except a constant) and consider what happens when you include one independent predictor. $\endgroup$
    – whuber
    Jun 26, 2013 at 4:15

1 Answer 1


Here's a quick simulation in R that gives you a feel for the distribution of $R^2_{adj}$ when adding a single random normal variable.

adj_r_simulation <- function(n=100) {
    y <- rnorm(n)
    x <- rnorm(n)
    fit <- lm(y~x)

# Simulate adjusted r-square values
simulations <- 1000
n <- 100
x <- sapply(seq(simulations), function(X) adj_r_simulation(n=n))

# Display results
     main=paste0("n=",n, "; simulations=", simulations),
     xlab='Adjusted r-squared')

The simulation above simulates two independent normal variables, x and y of sample size n=100. It then fits a linear model predicting y from x and returns $R^2_{adj}$. This process is repeated 1000 times and the values are saved. The sample mean of simulated $R^2_{adj}$ values is close to zero:

> mean(x)
[1] 0.0002181863
> sd(x)
[1] 0.01425647

Below you can see the density plot of the simulated values of $R^2_{adj}$. This illustrates whuber's point about the distribution being highly skewed.

distribution of adjusted r squared when adding independent normal variable


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