In R KPSS test, what is meaning of level and trend stationarity?

As far as I have read, trend stationarity means that once you remove the trend, the process becomes stationary. Is this the correct definition of trend stationarity? I do not know the meaning of level stationarity. I found a similar question, but no one in the answer defines the level stationarity. Here is the link to that post: KPSS: Difference between level stationary and trend stationary

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Hi @Mohit. "Level stationary" means that the time series is stationary in the natural units of the variable. Thus, the series does not require a transformation (e.g. first-differencing or de-trending) to make stationary. It already is. "Trend stationary" means that the series requires de-trending to make stationary, just as stated above. $\endgroup$
    – EB3112
    Oct 7, 2023 at 22:29
  • $\begingroup$ @EB3112: Can you please make that into n answer, that is, in the answer box? So that thw Q does not linger on as unresolved! $\endgroup$ Oct 29, 2023 at 16:13


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