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I have a very small sample size in one group and cannot perform statistical analysis. Is there any other way of performing analysis by artificially generating data and then presenting the results of both?? I have read about data augmentation, but valid is it?

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    $\begingroup$ you haven't described what data augmentation you would do. for image processing, rotation,translation etc are effective. adding gaussian noise to inputs tends to have a regularising effect, but there are more direct ways eg l2 regularisation for linear models. $\endgroup$
    – seanv507
    Commented Nov 22, 2023 at 9:24

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In general, you can't generate information out of thin air. If, e.g., you simply replicate data you have and treat this as "real" data, then all you do is simulate knowledge: your effect estimates will be identical to the original dataset, but your standard error will be artificially and invalidly smaller, and you will be too sure of your conclusions.

There is no way around either collecting more data, or accepting that you cannot do much with a small dataset.

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