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I am a high schooler conducting a survey on a group of 20 other high schoolers. They will take a 10 item pretest questionnaire containing 9 5-point Likert scale questions and 1 short-answer response question before viewing a film. After screening is complete, they will take the same questionnaire (labeled posttest just to make analysis easier) again. I am trying to find a way to identify and interpret differences in participants' responses to the Likert scale questions between the pretest and posttest questionnaire. I am looking to analyze the Likert scale questions as quantitative data, but I am unsure of how to do this and what software to use.

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welcome to CV! A common and relatively simple way to analyze pre-post data with small samples is a paired samples t-test. That you can do in almost any software, including Excel. That will test whether there was change from pre to post in your items.

However, you have quite many items and not a large sample. Would it be possible to combine the 10 items or some of them? Do all 10 items measure different things? If some of them measure more or less the same thing, you could consider averaging these items into a composite score and only run 1 or 2 t-tests.

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    $\begingroup$ Keep in mind that pre-post comparisons can be contaminated by general time trends and fatigue aside from the intervention of interest. As to the statistical test, a Wilcoxon signed rank test would be a little bettter. If you want to be adventurous the rank difference test is even better. See the chapter on Nonparametric methods in hbiostat.org/bbr for more information about this test. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 29, 2023 at 12:45

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