I trying to sample using Gibbs from a proportional distribucion $f_{Z}(z)$: \begin{align*} f_{Z}(z) \propto e^{-z}\left(1-e^{-z}\right)^4, \quad z >0 \end{align*} using the joint $f_{Z,\textbf{U}}(z,\textbf{u})$ $$ f_{Z,\textbf{U}}(z,\textbf{u}) \propto e^{- z} \prod_{i=1}^4 I_{\left(e^{-z}, 1\right)}\left(u_i\right) $$ with $U \sim U(0,1)$. I found that $p(U_i|Z,U_{-i}) \sim U(e^{-z},1)$, but i cant find $p(Z|\textbf{U})$.How should I sample from $p(Z|\textbf{U})$? it would depend on all the $u_i$ values? I got stuck on this.

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ This is a slice sampler, the whole point of uniforms is to replace challenging parts of the target with indicators. In the current case, a single uniform would have been enough. $\endgroup$
    – Xi'an
    Dec 4, 2023 at 3:08

1 Answer 1


If $u_i$ has to be between $e^{-z}$ and $1$, then $e^{-z}$ needs to be between $0$ and $u_i$. Thus the distribution of $z$ given $\mathbf u$ is effectively a standard exponential RV with truncation:

\begin{align} p(z|\mathbf u) &\propto e^{-z}\prod_{i=1}^4I_{(0, u_i)}(e^{-z}) \\ &= e^{-z}\prod_{i=1}^4I_{(\log(u_i), \infty)}(z) \\ &= e^{-z}\prod_{i=1}^4I(z > -\log u_i) \\ &= e^{-z}I(z > -\log u_{(1)}) \end{align}

where $u_{(1)} = \min (u_1, u_2, u_3, u_4)$. The easiest way to sample from this distribution is with a rejection sampler, with steps:

  1. Sample $z^\star \sim Exp(1)$
  2. If $z^\star > -\log u_{(1)}$, then accept. Otherwise return to step 1.

Verification of algorithm:

enter image description here

R Code:

# Number of samples
M <- 10000 
# Initialize values
z <- rep(NA, M)
u <- matrix(NA, nrow=M, ncol=4)
z[1]  <- rexp(1)
u[1,] <- rexp(4)
# Begin sampler
for(m in 2:M){
  umin <- min(u[m-1,])
  # Sample z | u
    zstar <- rexp(1)
    if(zstar > -log(umin))
      z[m] <- zstar
  # Sample u_i | u_-i, z
  for(i in 1:4){
    u[m,i] <- runif(1, exp(-z[m]), 1)

fz <- function(z) exp(-z)*(1-exp(-z))^4
const <- integrate(fz, lower=0, upper=100)$value

hist(z, freq=FALSE, breaks=30)
curve(fz(x)/const, add=TRUE, lwd=2, col='orange')

  • $\begingroup$ ooh I couldn't see that condition to accept, thank you very much! :D $\endgroup$
    – daniel
    Dec 4, 2023 at 1:04

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