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In the paper A general inefficacy interim monitoring rule for randomized clinical trials, they propose boundaries for interim analyses using the hazard ratios. These boundaries are illustrated in an example aiming to test H0: HR = 1 vs H1: HR = 0.75. They show the boundaries in the hazard ratio scale and Z-value scale as below:

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How can we transform from hazard ratio scale to Z-value scale?

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  • $\begingroup$ Hazard ratios are more useful metrics for understanding the stopping boundary. But you can convert between the two. I believe an R package for group sequential testing does this. $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 11 at 11:56

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