From epidemiological perspective, the absolute risk is the same as incidence rate, i.e, the rate at which new cases arise in a population during a certain time period. Absolute risk is not expressed in relation to an exposure, something that distinguishes it from relative risk that is expressed as a rate of a new cases given a certain exposure. In other words, relative risk is the ratio of two incidence rates.
Prevalence is the proportion of the population that has a certain condition. Point prevalence adds the time frame to this definition, and it is the proportion of the population having the condition at a certain point of time.
Incidence can't be directly estimated from a case-control study, but if you select the controls carefully, case-control study will allow you to estimate the risk ratio, that is the relative risk.
For more information, see the following two Chapters from a book published by IARC: