"Fisher's Discriminant Analysis" is simply LDA in a situation of 2 classes. When there is only 2 classes computations by hand are feasible and the analysis is directly related to Multiple Regression. LDA is the direct extension of Fisher's idea on situation of any number of classes and uses matrix algebra devices (such as eigendecomposition) to compute it. So, the term "Fisher's Discriminant Analysis" can be seen as obsolete today. "Linear Discriminant analysis" should be used instead. See also. Discriminant analysis with 2+ classes (multi-class) is canonical by its algorithm (extracts dicriminants as canonical variates); rare term "Canonical Discriminant Analysis" usually stands simply for (multiclass) LDA therefore (or for LDA + QDA, omnibusly).
Fisher used what was then called "Fisher classification functions" to classify objects after the discriminant function has been computed. Nowadays, a more general Bayes' approach is used within LDA procedure to classify objects.
To your request for explanations of LDA I may send you to these my answers: extraction in LDA, classification in LDA, LDA among related procedures. Also this, this, this questions and answers.
Just like ANOVA requires an assumption of equal variances, LDA requires an assumption of equal variance-covariance matrices (between the input variables) of the classes. This assumption is important for classification stage of the analysis. If the matrices substantially differ, observations will tend to be assigned to the class where variability is greater. To overcome the problem, QDA was invented. QDA is a modification of LDA which allows for the above heterogeneity of classes' covariance matrices.
If you have the heterogeneity (as detected for example by Box's M test) and you don't have QDA at hand, you may still use LDA in the regime of using individual covariance matrices (rather than the pooled matrix) of the discriminants at classification. This partly solves the problem, though less effectively than in QDA, because - as just pointed - these are the matrices between the discriminants and not between the original variables (which matrices differed).
Let me leave analyzing your example data for yourself.