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I have data from a 5 point Likert scale item which approximately 1/4 of the responses only account for 1 through 4 of the 1 through 5 available.

Do I have to standardize the min/max response categories that is reported in SPSS descriptives for output or will creating z-scores be sufficient?

The variables have differing degrees of distributions due to this and the transform functions (e.g., SQRT, LG10) have not solved my problem. My sample (N=162) is the first part of a test/retest for instrument reliability. I have run all the processes thinking that what looked normal and based on criterion (2 or 3 times the SD is sufficient to estimate skewness to identify 'normal distribution' regardless of visual).

I'm at the point of frustration and exhaustion...any expert advice?

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  • $\begingroup$ I'm sorry, I can't follow your question. It sounds like you're trying to assess normality. Why? You make several assertions in your third paragraph but I really can't tell what you're getting at. What parametric tests are you referring to? $\endgroup$ – Glen_b Feb 27 '14 at 2:22
  • $\begingroup$ You are applying those terms somewhat vaguely. Anyway, Likert scale is more often considered an ordinal scale, rather than interval. $\endgroup$ – Germaniawerks Feb 27 '14 at 8:59
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A test of significance on "normality" is often very uninformative. With large samples these tests almost always reject the hypothesis that sample data are from a normally distributed population, but often the degree of non-normality is only small and has no impact on the reliability of the statistcal analyses. Graphic methods such as q-q- plots are often more useful.

Moreover, if you perform analyses such as regression, ANOVA, t-test, then the normality of the variables is uninteresting. Instead, you would have to inspect the distribution of the residuals (prediction errors).

Even more: if you want to perform analyses such as regression, ANOVA, t-test, then with such a large sample size as yours, even a normal distribution of the residuals doesn't matter much.

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