I am trying to include a term in an AR(2) model: $$Y_t=\left( a_0+a_1 \frac{\exp(\beta_t)}{1+\exp(\beta_t)}\right)Y_{t-1}+bY_{t-2}+\delta\epsilon_t$$

Can anyone please help me with this? I don't seem to be able include this in the R code.

for(i in 2:n) {

yr  water
1986    0.01
1987    -0.63
1988    -0.14
1989    2.52
1990    1.96
1991    0.6
1992    1.82
1993    1.82
1994    0.89
1995    1.32
1996    -1.43
1997    0.75
1998    0.02
1999    0.69
2000    1.65
2001    -1
2002    0.66
2003    0.09
2004    -0.08
2005    0.4
2006    -0.87
2007    1.2
2008    1.1
2009    0.07
2010    -2.57
  • 4
    $\begingroup$ Please clarify your equation. Either use the appropriate (tex-based) mark-up or add parentheses. $\endgroup$ – Roland Mar 3 '14 at 12:25
  • $\begingroup$ This is not an AR(2) model. you can't estimate it with arima $\endgroup$ – Aksakal Mar 3 '14 at 15:52

If you treat $\beta_t$ as a time-varying coefficient, then it looks like you will have to estimate more unknowns than available data.

If on the other hand $\beta_t$ is treated as a random variable following the standard logistic distribution, and if the process $\{\beta_t\}$ is i.i.d and independent of $Y_{t-1}$, then the random variable

$$U_t = \frac{\exp(\beta_t)}{1+\exp(\beta_t)} \sim U[0,1]$$

i.e. it follows a uniform in $[0,1]$, since its functional form is the cumulative distribution function of a standard logistic random variable (this is the "probability integral transform" result). Then you have ($\mathcal F_{t-1}$ is data available up to $t-1$)

$$E[Y_t\mid \mathcal F_{t-1}]=a_0Y_{t-1} + a_1E[U_tY_{t-1}\mid \mathcal F_{t-1}]+bY_{t-2}+\delta E[\epsilon_t \mid \mathcal F_{t-1}]$$

$$\Rightarrow E[Y_t\mid \mathcal F_{t-1}]=a_0Y_{t-1} + a_1E[U_t\mid \mathcal F_{t-1}]Y_{t-1}+bY_{t-2}$$

$$\Rightarrow E[Y_t\mid \mathcal F_{t-1}]=\left(a_0 + \frac 12 a_1\right)Y_{t-1}+bY_{t-2}$$

Of course I cannot know if this formulation is useful to you, since it does not provide an estimate for the series $\{\beta_t\}$ which could be your desired target. This formulation assumes that $$\beta_t \sim \Lambda \left (0, \frac {\pi^2}{3}\right)$$

You could extend this to a stable autocorrelated series for $\beta_t$.

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  • $\begingroup$ What will the end result of estimation procedure will be? An equation with a time varying coefficient on $Y_{t-1}$? If yes, this time-varying coefficient will have to be expressed as a function of something so that it can change as time passes - a function of the index $t$ or of its own past. How the estimation algorithm will produce one or the other? $\endgroup$ – Alecos Papadopoulos Mar 3 '14 at 18:10

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