# How to design neural networks for pattern recognition in biometry?

Having read numerous texts regarding neural networks and their characteristics, I am getting increasingly confused, paradoxically – I am looking for a brief explanation or references to the right sources.

I am trying to implement neural networks using PyBrain to recognise patterns in biometric data and classify them. It is just a small project to actually learn the procedures and the goal is to recognise which subject provided which data.

I am using a feedforward multilayer perceptron trained using back-propagation and the results are successful with roughly 0.7 probability but honestly I am just guessing the settings like types of layers and such.

I realise this question is very broad and very difficult, but could you perhaps suggest the best approach to such task and possibly identify the variables that determine which algorithms to use?

The data are in the time domain so for example, the typical input for training and following classification would be a vector of 256 values representing 2 seconds of ECG input.

I should also point out that the same data are classified with a ~0.97 probability using Matlab's Neural Network Toolbox which is why I believe that the configuration could use some work and the data contain the necessary unique patterns.

Cheers.

The Matlab program in question was not mine and it turned out that the input data were terribly flawed during preprocessing so none of it was true.

I have learned a lot new information since asking this question and some parts of the procedure as well as results have changed but the general problem persists – choosing a correct model. Despite reading through loads of literature, I still lack basic understanding of certain concepts.

• The raw data coming from each subject are processed before feeding them to the NN (MLP) by extracting the same single channel, filtering out everything except beta range, splitting them into chunks of 256 samples with 50% overlap (fs = 128 Hz) and obtaining a PSD using Welch's method so they are skewed and look like this:

• They do correlate with each other but I am not sure about the principal components – how can I find out? I am interested in the general methodology of empirically establishing the optimal number of hidden layers, the number of perceptron units and their activation functions (I am currently using tanh for hidden layers and softmax for output). The studies I read did not include any information regarding this procedure.

• The dimensions of my current network are 129-10-6. The input is the power spectral density estimate (as pictured above) computed from each chunk of 256 samples times 30 per each of 6 subjects minus 1 due to overlapping (59 inputs per subject in total).

I am currently achieving a mean error of ~15% after 100 epochs so there has been an improvement. The studies I have read were at ~2%.

• There has been some success using elman networks with time-series material. I used it with some particularly bizarre audio applications several years ago. citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/… Apr 7, 2014 at 19:01
• Hi, I'm probably a same level machine learning guy as you, but I want to point out some issues. I don't think there is a "best" model for a job, you simply try different models, different parameter values, and in the end, choose the one that works best for you (and call this a fancy name like parameter selection or cross validation :D ) , I don't know much about NNs, but usually what people do is try different values for the parameters (like hidden layer size, etc.) simply by a for loop, and use the one that results in best classification accuracy.
– jeff
Aug 29, 2014 at 23:05

Neural networks are too often used as a black box without correct model specification. Indeed, you could take your 256 values per individual and model it as a Feed-forward NN with 256 inputs, maybe 5 to 10 perceptrons on the hidden layer, and hope to get a nice output.

However to choose a correct model it would be a good idea to do some preliminary analysis. Maybe you already did, but at least I have now the following questions:

• How are the values distributed? Normal, symmetric, skewed? (often pre-transformations are very useful!)
• Do they correlate with each other? How many principal components are needed to explain most of the variation? (If only few, you need not a lot of perceptrons)
• Do the 256 values measure the same thing? Do you have per subject a time series of 256 values ranging from second 0-2 until 510-512??

After getting a better idea of the data, the model specification is feasible.

• Hello, thank you for time. I have updated the question with information that you requested as well as some of my progress. It would be great if you could point me to relevant literature which addresses my problems. Weirdly, I have not been able to find answers even after reading through loads of NN learning materials. Apr 4, 2014 at 13:21
• @harold Well, it is not so easy, given I am not an expert on the analysis of frequency domain data. Maybe you can standardize your input values by dividing them by the integral (=sum) of all 128 values? There are some books from Bishop and Ripley about Pattern Recognition and NN - however I did not read them, so better taking first a look into before deciding. Or consult a Data Scientist :) Apr 4, 2014 at 14:04
• Btw, Googling for terms like: Neural Networks for Signal Processing or Frequency Domain Neural Networks leads to a lot of interesting articles which are worth to study. Apr 4, 2014 at 14:12