Linked Questions

2
votes
2answers
268 views

The rationale behind the “fail to reject the null” jargon in hypothesis testing?

In hypothesis testing with a Null and the Alternative hypothesis (assuming that these two cases are mutually inclusive of all the possible "truths"), we usually base our hypothesis selection criterion ...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

How can we reject null hypothesis based on p-values? [closed]

In textbook statistical tests, we usually calculate the probability of observing the data we observed given that the null hypothesis is true, i.e. $P[D|H_0]$. If this probability is small (e.g. $<0....
0
votes
2answers
149 views

What fraction to use in the formulation of a hypothesis test ? - Population fraction versus sample fraction

Imagine that I am studying racial discrimination. In particular, whether a white candidate (for a job) is chosen more often than an equally qualified minority candidate. I ask people to choose ...
0
votes
0answers
212 views

what “rejecting a null hypothesis” actually means?

I have a sample dateset consists two variables as "Score"(independent continuous) consists score of students in maths and school(dependent categorical)having 3 categories as "S1","S2","S3". I'd ...
4
votes
4answers
689 views

When a one-tailed test passes but a two-tailed test does not

(Sorry if this is obvious or is a duplicate. I couldn't find one.) Suppose two researchers are studying whether average height of some population has changed significantly. Researcher 1 hypothesizes ...
60
votes
13answers
16k views

If we fail to reject the null hypothesis in a large study, isn't it evidence for the null?

A basic limitation of null hypothesis significance testing is that it does not allow a researcher to gather evidence in favor of the null (Source) I see this claim repeated in multiple places, but I ...
9
votes
6answers
2k views

Using p-value to compute the probability of hypothesis being true; what else is needed?

Question: One common misunderstanding of p-values is that they represent the probability of the null hypothesis being true. I know that's not correct and I know that p-values only represent the ...
2
votes
3answers
232 views

Null hypothesis for the one- and two-tailed test

From the Online Stat Book, Chapter 11.5: The null hypothesis for the two-tailed test is π = 0.5. By contrast, the null hypothesis for the one-tailed test is π ≤ 0.5. Why is that so? The null ...
2
votes
3answers
237 views

Is this null hypothesis wrong?

The Wikipedia article Null hypothesis says in its opening paragraph: In inferential statistics, the term "null hypothesis" is a general statement or default position that there is no relationship ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

Interpreting hypothesis testing result (assuming that the null hypothesis is true) [duplicate]

I have a doubt on how to interpret a result of a hypothesis test. For example, a scenario where I have an existing configuration and also a new configuration. I am trying to check if with the new ...
2
votes
2answers
939 views

Choice of null and alternative hypothesis

A firm producing tobacco cigarettes claims that it has discovered a new technique for curing tobacco leaves, that results in an average nicotine content of a cigarette of less than 1.5 mg. To test ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Power of a test in testing of hypothesis

Power in testing of hypothesis is defined as the probability of making the correct decision. Then why do text books describe power=1-P(type 2 error) and not 1-P(type 1 error)
5
votes
2answers
317 views

Why do we trust the p-value when fitting a regression on a single sample?

I have code below that builds a linear model for a set of data: ...
1
vote
2answers
7k views

How to interpret MCAR (missing completely at random) any papers that I can read?

When dealing with missing data and Little's missing completely at random test, it's widely considered that if the test has a significance level of P>0.05 the data can be considered as MCAR. But, I ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

How to define a rejection region?

This has always troubled me a bit. When I choose my hypothesis, do I define in some way the rejection region [RR], or, do I do that by choosing the test statistic I want to use? By fixing the ...

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