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### Factor analysis on non normal data ( Ordinal data of Likert Scale) [duplicate]

How to check the normality of data collected on 5 point Likert scale? As it is ordinal numbers not continuous. Using SPSS the Shapiro Wilk or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicate my data is not normal. ...
129k views

### Is normality testing 'essentially useless'?

A former colleague once argued to me as follows: We usually apply normality tests to the results of processes that, under the null, generate random variables that are only asymptotically or ...
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### Is it appropriate to treat n-point Likert scale data as n trials from a binomial process?

I've never liked how people typically analyze data from Likert scales as if error were continuous & Gaussian when there are reasonable expectations that these assumptions are violated at least at ...
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### Whether to use original or reverse coded items in factor analysis?

I am currently analyzing data from a 34-item Likert scale. I already recoded the negatively stated variables in SPSS as different variables. I'm about to do a factor analysis. Should I use the ...
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### Is it better to select distributions based on theory, fit or something else?

This is bordering on a philosophical question, but I am interested in how others with more experience think about distribution selection. In some cases it seems clear that theory might work best (mice ...
943 views

### When to dichotomize a variable for correlational analysis? [closed]

This is the question I am trying to answer : I’m working on a thesis project and have a variable that is normally distributed and related to happiness. I am considering to split my sample into ...
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### Reporting the use of different likert-scales in survey for structural equation modelling?

Suppose you are doing a survey and from the data you want to build a structural equation model. The research model consists of 5 constructs and each of them has between 2 and 5 items. The survey uses ...
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### Correlational study or ordinal data using 5-point Likert scale

How do I calculate the correlation using ordinal data based on a 5-point Likert scale associating perioperative education to patient satisfaction scores? A numerical value (...
1 vote
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### Regression testing after dimension reduction

I have a 12 item Likert scale for my predictor variable [IV], and a 9 item Likert scale for my dependent variable [DV]. I used SPSS and did factor analysis on both scales, and found that the IV had 3 ...
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### Singular covariance matrix in exploratory Factor Analysis

I'm kind of a noob to EFA and am trying to use the FANode object in Python. This is from the MDP library. I am using it on survey data to see which variables are tied together. Whenever I run it on my ...
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### Why change items which don't change Cronbach Alpha?

I am doing peer review on a paper submission for a journal, and I am somewhat out of my depth. The authors are developing a psychometric scale. They did a pilot study with 45 items. They measured ...
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### Can I regress an index value with variables used to create the index?

I developed an index value (vulnerability score scale of 0 to 1) using a series of variables. I would like to regress these variables with the index value to determine the relative predictive power of ...
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### Can we visualise regression results through diagram?

I read a journal article, in which the authors made a diagram based on regression results (beta weights). Pretty much looks like a path analysis: I'm very sure that path analysis/SEM was not employed ...
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### factor analysis problem in structural equation model

I am using an Extended Technology Acceptance Model and have adopted an instrument from a research paper. After performing factor analysis in SPSS, most questions related to different constructs (...
I have a variable that is measured using a 13-item, 4-point Likert scale with the exception of one item (yes $=1$, no $=2)$. How can I calculate the total score for this variable?