# Linked Questions

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### If a study indicates no correlation between two variables, does it also indicate a lack of casual relationship? [duplicate]

Of course, correlation does not equal causation. But I am having trouble understanding if there is no correlation between two variables, would this indicate a lack of casual relationship between them ...
8answers
37k views

### Does causation imply correlation?

Correlation does not imply causation, as there could be many explanations for the correlation. But does causation imply correlation? Intuitively, I would think that the presence of causation means ...
7answers
18k views

### The Book of Why by Judea Pearl: Why is he bashing statistics?

I am reading The Book of Why by Judea Pearl, and it is getting under my skin1. Specifically, it appears to me that he is unconditionally bashing "classical" statistics by putting up a straw man ...
6answers
1k views

### Zero correlation of all functions of random variables implying independence

Independence between random variables $X$ and $Y$ implies that $\text{Corr}\left(f(X),g(Y)\right)=0$ for arbitrary functions $f(\cdot)$ and $g(\cdot)$ (here is a related thread). But is the following ...
2answers
3k views

### Difference between rungs two and three in the Ladder of Causation

In Judea Pearl's "Book of Why" he talks about what he calls the Ladder of Causation, which is essentially a hierarchy comprised of different levels of causal reasoning. The lowest is concerned with ...
3answers
13k views

### What is covariate?

I'm confused with this term: covariate. What is it? Is is just the observed outcomes of some random variables that contain information that could help us enhance our prediction of another random ...
1answer
3k views

### Which Theories of Causality Should I know?

Which theoretical approaches to causality should I know as an applied statistician/econometrician? I know the (a very little bit) Neyman–Rubin causal model (and Roy, Haavelmo etc.) Pearl's Work on ...
3answers
399 views

### Is causal inference only from data possible?

Suppose we are given a dataset but not the capability of performing some AB testing. We do some regression using X as predictor and Y as response and get a model. Can we actually say something about ...
1answer
275 views

### Independence imply d-separation?

In the context of Bayesian networks if two random variables (i.e. nodes) are d-separated, they are independent. However, is there any example of random variables being independent but not d-separated?
1answer
265 views

### Can causal Bayes Nets compute counterfactuals? If so, are they “worse” than structural causal model counterfactuals?

I was under the impression that you couldn't perform counterfactual reasoning on causal Bayes nets using inference algorithms and do-calculus, but I realized recently that this might not be true. ...
2answers
69 views

### Mix of terms causation and dependence in 'book of why'?

In the 'book of why' he says: the listening pattern prescribed by the paths of the causal model usually results in observable patterns or dependencies in the data I don't understand, why he says &...