54 views

If a study indicates no correlation between two variables, does it also indicate a lack of casual relationship? [duplicate]

Of course, correlation does not equal causation. But I am having trouble understanding if there is no correlation between two variables, would this indicate a lack of casual relationship between them ...
37k views

Does causation imply correlation?

Correlation does not imply causation, as there could be many explanations for the correlation. But does causation imply correlation? Intuitively, I would think that the presence of causation means ...
18k views

The Book of Why by Judea Pearl: Why is he bashing statistics?

I am reading The Book of Why by Judea Pearl, and it is getting under my skin1. Specifically, it appears to me that he is unconditionally bashing "classical" statistics by putting up a straw man ...
1k views

Zero correlation of all functions of random variables implying independence

Independence between random variables $X$ and $Y$ implies that $\text{Corr}\left(f(X),g(Y)\right)=0$ for arbitrary functions $f(\cdot)$ and $g(\cdot)$ (here is a related thread). But is the following ...
3k views

Difference between rungs two and three in the Ladder of Causation

In Judea Pearl's "Book of Why" he talks about what he calls the Ladder of Causation, which is essentially a hierarchy comprised of different levels of causal reasoning. The lowest is concerned with ...
13k views

What is covariate?

I'm confused with this term: covariate. What is it? Is is just the observed outcomes of some random variables that contain information that could help us enhance our prediction of another random ...
3k views

Which Theories of Causality Should I know?

Which theoretical approaches to causality should I know as an applied statistician/econometrician? I know the (a very little bit) Neyman–Rubin causal model (and Roy, Haavelmo etc.) Pearl's Work on ...
399 views

Is causal inference only from data possible?

Suppose we are given a dataset but not the capability of performing some AB testing. We do some regression using X as predictor and Y as response and get a model. Can we actually say something about ...
275 views

Independence imply d-separation?

In the context of Bayesian networks if two random variables (i.e. nodes) are d-separated, they are independent. However, is there any example of random variables being independent but not d-separated?