Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a topic in computer science that deals with the study / creation of intelligent machines. Use this tag for on-topic questions that have an AI aspect.

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Deductive reasoning and artificial intelligence

AI has proven to be extraordinary effective for solving certain types of intellectual problems that we thought before only our brains could solve. The number of applications is tremendous: engineering,...
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Autodiff vs Symbolic Derivatives [closed]

According to the survey paper on autodiff (linked) Autodiff works on inputs that cannot be specified in closed form but can be described by a sequence of code, each component of which is ...
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Are Neural Networks vulnerable to the local minimum problem? If so, how to overcome it? [duplicate]

Neural Networks use gradient descent upon a cost function that is equal to the one used in logistic regression in each artificial neuron (a logarithmic convex function). So, are the ANNs still ...
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20 views

How can I draw decision boundaries for three different classes in Logistic Regression?

I understand the equation to draw a decision boundary in Logistic Regression with 2 independent variables and 2 different classes but when it comes to 3 different classes with 2 different independent ...
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Why Expectation and Maximization algorithm not used in Machine Learning while Gradient Descent algorithm used in Machine Learning?

I know that Newton Raphson, Expectation & Maximization, and Gradient Descent are all known to be optimization methods. Somehow, I wonder why Gradient Descent is chosen to be used in most of ...
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What are the main technologies behind Grammarly, Google Translate, Google Suggestions, etc [closed]

I am interested in, just for fun, create a program where when I input a phrase, it outputs a modified phrase. Both input and output will be in text form and in English. I want to basically "...
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In feature selection, what the size of the data set is considered as too small? Is this an appropriate use of machine learning?

I am in a non-computer science field, and machine learning is being blatantly misused in my field. I recently got a journal paper to review, where the researchers used machine learning to develop a ...
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Can the same individual from a population be chosen in a genetic algorithm?

One population contains 10 individuals, from these 10, 8 are picked based on a selection mechanism. Let's say they are picked using the rank based selection mechanism (so the best ranked has a higher ...
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How does one solve the premise selection problem with imitation learning?

I was reading the following two new papers (HOList, Graph Representations) applying Machine Learning to Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logic. The main thing that I am unsure about is the following ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between AI and “normal” programming?

Based on this link, DL is a subset of ML and ML of AI. My question is, is AI a subset of "normal" programming, or are they the same? The definition of AI from that link is: The broad discipline of ...
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Text Match for Description Fields

I have a long file with the list of item id's and their descriptions. These descriptions are like "The Brawn White Bolt Laser 10W" and "Laser for 10 Watt White Bolt" with different item id's. Though ...
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What is the difference between Deep Neural Network(DNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)? [duplicate]

This question basically focus on working of ANN and DNN. I really want to know, as both ANN and DNN may have multiple layer and also increase the number of hidden neuron. so, why DNN works better than ...
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What does State of Art Result means in context of ML/DL

Wondering what it means to have a state of art result.Is it a relative term or a standard? For Exmaple: If I have developed 2 models one with higher accuracy can i say i have achieved state of art ...
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Training a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with a modified basis function

Consider a simple 3-layer MLP such as this. Each hidden layer implements y=xw+b where y is the output activation matrix of the ...
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1answer
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Feeding multiple rows of data into ANN [closed]

I've built an ANN from scratch, that works with one row of data with any number of neurons and hidden layers. For the setup I am using 2 hidden layers, 5 neurons (just while building). The network ...
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Is it possible to reverse-engineer a variable which has a moderation effect in a multiple regression, given the other variables?

I am interested in simulating a hypothetical variable Z which moderates the relationship between X (predictor) and Y (outcome variable), while controlling for C (covariate). All variables are ...
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3answers
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Predicting coefficients in a regular/polynomial equation using neural networks

Any insights onto how one can predict coefficients in lets say a regular or a polynomial equation using machine-learning/neural networks, i.e., $\alpha x_i + \beta x_i^2 + \gamma x_i^3 = y_i,$ ...
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How to understand 4 steps of Monte Carlo tree search?

From many blogs and this one https://web.archive.org/web/20160308070346/http://mcts.ai/about/index.html We know that the process of MCTS algorithm has 4 steps. Selection: Starting at root node R,...
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1answer
25 views

Policy Gradient Methods advantages over value-based methods

In the RL bible by Sutton and Barto it says on page 322 regarding the advantages of policy gradient methods: If the action space is discrete and not too large, then a natural and common kind of ...
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Is there a model or algorithm to improve digital drawings?

given a bad drawing, the algorithm should deform the edges of the bad drawing and fill them with color so that it looks more like a learned character. the entry would be a very poorly made drawing of ...
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Is studying Machine Learning really just learning a bunch of algos? [closed]

I've been watching some introduction Machine Learning videos just to see what it's all about and so far my takeaway has been that it just involves learning a bunch of algos (regression, k means, ...
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In what step should I try to find a best thread cut-off point for binary classification? [duplicate]

I am working on an imbalanced binary classification and wondering in what step I should find the best optimal threshold cut-off point. When I tried classifying the dataset with the normal probability ...
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61 views

Is time series analysis suitable for long term predicting/forecasting?

Can I use time series analysis to predict/forecast long term ? Example using ARIMA, how can I explain the back of the theory its?
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what is the cost function for a perceptron muticap

I have the function of cost or error of a perceptron of an entry and exit ...
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22 views

Does the TensorFlow object detection API understand the idea of “context”?

For example, if I'm creating an object detection model to recognize forms of transportation (cars, bikes, planes, etc.). If I also train it to recognize wheels, will it be more likely to detect wheels ...
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mathematics behind autoencoders

Someone knows of an article that explains in detail the mathematics behind the auto-encoders. All the articles I find show the typical diagrams ...
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1answer
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learning the architecture of convolutional networks

I am learning the convolutional networks, and I see cnn diagrams but I don't understand why they are getting smaller and smaller. I have an image where it shows that they are called feauture maps but ...
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1answer
29 views

Text classification suggestion

I have a big data-set of sentences (tens of thousands) which some of these sentences are big but some are short. The main problem is that you should classify some sentences according to previous or ...
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How to interpret predictions from multi labels in machine learning?

Say I use a (convolutional) neural network to classify a multi-label problem. For example, the problem is classifying different stages of skin cancer from 0 (healthy) to 4 (severe). The five stages ...
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1answer
43 views

Machine learning and feature selection [closed]

I developed my algorithm, Hybrid SVM algorithm, and correlation-based feature selection (for network intrusion detection), I have a suspicion that If I want to compare performance with other methods ...
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1answer
187 views

Multi-class classification using a single neural network with only one output neural

My problem has 3 classes. I want to implement a single neural network, which has only one neural at the output layer, to classify these 3 classes. Is there any way to implement it?
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1answer
24 views

Updating Prediction Errors in Gradient Ascent (Friston's Free-energy)

Background In Rafal Bogacz's tutorial on the free-energy framework for modelling perception and learning, section 2.3 we have: $$\dot{\phi} = \frac{\partial F}{\partial\phi} = \varepsilon_u g'(\phi) ...
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Batch-Norm makes the Decision Boundary more non-linear?

Consider a Neural Network and let $L$ be it's last layer or the output layer. Also suppose we're doing Binary Classification, hence the activation function for the last layer is $\sigma$, ie. $g^{[L]}(...
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Transfer Learning in domains other than Image processing and NLP

Can Transfer Learning be applied in domains other than Image processing or NLP? I am trying to apply it on clickstream data (for propensity modeling). Any reference would be greatly appreciated.
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Data augmentation techniques for numeric datasets? [duplicate]

I'm writing a paper about Data Augmentation and I'm looking for some way of increasing the size of a dataset. I'm already aware of the techniques used for images (transformations, PCA, blurs, etc.) ...
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1answer
54 views

SVM in the classification layer of a Feedforward neural network

I want to use SVM in the classification layer of a 2 layer feedforward neural network. Need guidance from the community on how to approach this problem. This involves capturing the features from the ...
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Zero Sum problem with MDP formulation and the difference with minimax approach

Suppose that we have formulate a zero sum game with MDP and Ua(s) and Ub(s) are the utilities of A and B in the s state. Suppose that all rewards and utilities are calculated from the A's point of ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between policy-based, on-policy, value-based, off-policy, model-free and model-based?

I'm trying to clear things out for myself, there are a lot of different categorizations within RL. Some people talk about: On-policy & Off-Policy Model-based & Model-free Model-based, Policy-...
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1answer
57 views

What are the applications of different cost functions and which one to choose? [duplicate]

I have just read about different cost functions for training neural networks. How to determine which cost function is applicable in any given situation?
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35 views

Why does this Neural Network have an accuracy drop-off on higher feature sizes

I am currently training different models (neural network, support vector machine, and XGBoost) to predict concentrations of antibiotics required to prevent growth of a bacteria from whole genome ...
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13 views

Confidence vs. Count in association rule mining: which one is better?

I am writing a program that mines association rules from a large data set. I have an array of association rules, and I have to decide which ones are more representative of the patterns I am studying. ...
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1answer
104 views

Is it possible to use alpha-beta pruning for non-zero-sum games with more than two players?

I have read somewhere that the minimax algorithm can be generalized for more than two players. Imagine that we have 3 players that each of them want to maximize its own answer. Is it possible to use ...
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1answer
27 views

Understanding Feed Forward Neural Network

My problem with FFNN is that I do not understand in which use cases this network makes sense. Does anyone have an example where this is used? Once I read on the internet that it could be used for YES/...
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1answer
72 views

What is an Hopfield network?

What is a Boolean Hopfield network model? Is it same as binary hopfield network?
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1answer
55 views

Initialization for ridge regression

What should be a better initialization for weights of ridge regression if I have to perform gradient descent. I have tried with all weights 0, all weights 1, and random initialization. In all the ...
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2answers
62 views

How to get PCA of the testing data? [duplicate]

I'd like to transform my data into pca (preprocessing data before I use data into classification model). I separate my data into data training and data testing. I used princomp in R to process pca ...
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1answer
29 views

Distribution of points in SVMs

Is that an assumption that in SVMs there is a separation of -1 to +1 for all the sample data points, i.e., if x_p is a positive label point then w.x_p + b >= 1 and if x_n is a negative label point ...
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Problem - “Datewise” (for next week in future) forecast for the “Customer numbers” expected to have alarm

Please provide some direction for the problem I am trying to solve. IoT sensors at villas generate Fire and Maintenance alamrs. I have alarm history data - Customer no., timestamp of alarm, problem ...
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Advantage and Disadvantage of genetic programming [closed]

Are genetic programming and genetic algorithm the same ? If not how are they different? what are the advantage and the disadvantages of them?
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192 views

Time shifting in time series forecasting

I am working on an ANN model for univariate time series forecasting. The step size is 1, so I try to forecast value of t+1, using value of t. Unfortunately, my forecasts have time shift problem. The ...