# Questions tagged [association-measure]

Measures of the association between variables, a more general concept than correlation

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102 views

### How to use the chi squared test (a biological investigation)

Imagine four habitats - A, B, C and D - set up in a choice chamber and two species of the same family, X and Y, 20 individuals of each. In a series of experiments, we put these species into the choice ...
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13 views

### n-way contingency tables comparison

I have a dataset containing various methods of splitting data into two groups. The true partition is not known, and I want to compare how similar the respective methods of partitioning are to each ...
1answer
31 views

### Study association between continuous and categorical variables

I have independent continuous variables like Age, Price and outcome variable like purchased ...
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10 views

### Boschloo's Test the right test?

My study has two Groups: Group 1 and Group 2 There are two stories (Story A and Story B), each with two conditions. Both groups of participants will hear the same 2 Stories. But... Group 1 only hears: ...
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15 views

### Statistical test to a noncausal hypothesis

In my study, I intend to assess the interest of scientists and the general public in a particular taxonomic group. To measure the interest of scientists, I will consider the number of scientific ...
0answers
14 views

### Testing species association and clustering : Multivariate analyses / weighted association test

Sorry to take a bit of your time but I am slightly (very) lost, and very unsure as to which test to use in R. Alright so here is the oversimplified sampling procedure, with easy-looking numbers : -We ...
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15 views

### When should you use association instead of correlation measurements?

I have a data set in which the variables are all categorical. I was wondering if I can examine the data using both correlation measurements (Spearman) and association (Cramer V) or taking into account ...
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19 views

### Correlation coefficient to use for data with non linear relationship

I am working with the following y = x^2 data type for my test studies ...
1answer
23 views

### How Do I detect window of X corresponding to Y (nonlinearly)?

I have two continuous variables that may have nonlinear relationship. The dataset contains multiple recordings of X, each corresponding to multiple recordings of Y. The exact matching is unknown. How ...
0answers
12 views

### Accuracy estimator for scan sample of categorical time series

Suppose we are tracking the behavior of some agent over time, and this agent can only exist in two states (+, -). This agent is only active for 20 timesteps, but we are only able to observe the agent ...
1answer
76 views

### on the use of R squared as a measure of predictive accuracy for non-parametric models such as random forest

I am confused. I know there are a couple of similar questions about $R^2$ but I hope I get some opinions on this particular matter. I have trained a random forest and other nonparametric regression ...
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24 views

### Simulating an example of correlation attenuation due to measurement error

I'm trying to simulate an example of the attenuation of an association due to measurement error. According to the attenuation formula from classical test theory, the presence of measurement error ...
0answers
19 views

### How to perform data association using Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filter (JPDAF)

I have searched the papers regarding JPDAF to perform data association, but all of these papers are about tracking purpose. I need to perform JPDAF for data association. Unfortunately, I can't find ...
1answer
38 views

### Do multiple chi square tests between a set of variables violate the assumption of independence?

I have a dataset of 28 nominal and ordinal categorical variables, 161 observations. If I use chi sq tests of association between variables, for example I test var1 and var2, var1 and var3 and var1 and ...
1answer
666 views

### Alternative to Bonferroni Correction when performing multiple one-vs-rest association tests

My question anonymizes the 'nouns' of the question to protect my employer. It is not really about lab rats and experimental treatments. I am also coming more from a Machine Learning background, so my ...
1answer
24 views

### How to analyse association between two (paired) sets of measurements, when arbitrary to which set each member of a pair belongs

I have pairs of measurements and need advice to select a measure of association between the measurements. The special aspect that has me confused is the symmetry: there is no reason to allocate a ...
1answer
26 views

### Association between groups of features and outcome variable

I am working with a high-dimensional dataset (e.g., ~150 features) and possible confounders (e.g., ~10 features to control). The goal is to identify association with an outcome variable that is ...
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111 views

### How do I apply spearman rank correlation on one continuous variables like sales data in and other discrete variable like Industries count?

I have a dataframe with total sales of around 500 product categories in each row. So there are 500 columns in my dataframe. I am trying to find the highest correlated category with my another dataset ...
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9 views

### Strength of the association between different modalities of the same variable over time

I wanted to ask for help concerning a problem that I am currently working on and for which I have not yet been able to find a reasonable solution. I am a beginner in statistics and data analytics and ...
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10 views

### What is the test for association between 5 point likert scale and ordinal variable? [duplicate]

Note the likert scale is very satisfied 2.satisfied Don't know Unsatisfied 5.very unsatisfied And the ordinal variable is anxiety: 1.normal 2.mild 3.moderate 4.severe
1answer
39 views

### Regression for prediction versus understanding independent associations

I see that regression is used for 2 main purposes: To develop a predictive model for future use To understand associations. Specifically, to know which of the predictors have an "independent ...
1answer
23 views

### What method to use to determine the association between multiple choice question in a questionnaire and continuous value outcome

I have data from a questionnaire to determine the level of diabetic foot care knowledge (DFCK) among undergraduate Podiatry students. The DFCK (i.e. outcome) is a score based on the total number of ...
1answer
16 views

### How to test if con-infection between microbes is correlated?

I am analyzing the results from a diagnostic test that looks for the presence of micro-organisms in humans. In some cases, there is only one microbe but in others, there are multiple infections. What ...
1answer
34 views

### Visually, how strong would you rate the association between this nominal predictor variable and continuous response variable?

I've yet to find an easy-to-understand and easy-to-implement way to statistically model the strength of association between nominal data and continuous data. So I'm trying to get a rough idea visually ...
1answer
33 views

### How can I compare the predictive power or association of two variables of different nature?

I am dealing with the following problem: We have 3 variables: A continuous variable (0 to 1), that is a scoring for people. A discrete variable, offered by a partner, in the range 1..10. That is also ...
0answers
33 views

### Bivariate copula for count and continuous variables?

I'm interested in fit a Copula from my bivariate data with a count variable $Y_{i}$ and a continuous one $X_{i}$. So, let $F(x)$ and $G(x)$ be the margins for the mentioned variables and $C$ the ...
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22 views

### Interpretable Measure of Association between a dichotomous variable and a variable with more than two ordered categories

What measure of association including a positive or negative sign can be used to evaluate the association between a dichotomous variable (i.e. YES, NO) and a categorical ordinal variable (ie. A lot, ...
0answers
41 views

### Relationship between categorical variable (depression) and a continuous variable

I appreciate this question is quite simple to ask but I want to make sure I direct myself in the right direction. I want to test the association between a continuous variable (BMI) and a categorical ...
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13 views

### Large difference in contingency table level affecting Cramer's V?

The Wikipedia article for Cramer's V states the following without citation: Note that as chi-squared values tend to increase with the number of cells, the greater the difference between r (rows) ...
0answers
17 views

### How do i compare ordinal score across two or more categories? [duplicate]

I have an ordinal score ranging from ( 1 to 5 ) called "Score" I have another binary variable Human Response (Yes or No ) called "h_score" I don't think i can do correlation study in this case as ...
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178 views

### Interpretation of discrepancy between prop.test and pairwise.prop.test results

My aim is to find out if infection state (pos / neg) is associated with the group of patients (A, B or C). For this analysis I have followed suggestion from How to analyze $2\times n$ contingency ...
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1k views

### What's the added value of SD line over regression line when examining association between 2 variables?

I'm trying to incorporate different practices to use when exploring a new data set. Especially, how to examine the association between two variables. Steps for example (not necessarily by order): ...
1answer
242 views

### A bit confused on p values on ttest in Stata output

In Stata the output of a ttest shows p values as: Pr(T<t), Pr(|T|>|t|) and Pr(T>t) I understand the two sides to be the tails of the test and the middle ...
2answers
1k views

### When to use Theil's U and Cramer's V, the danger of symmetrical data?

As I understand, Cramer's V method of counting correlation between categorical variables may find correlations between symmetrical data. I searched a ton of sites, but the only thing I found was that ...
1answer
57 views

### Using scatterplot before running a controlled experiment to test causality

This question is an extension of awesome thread Does causation imply correlation?. As an example, let's say that I am running an online experiment on Stackoverflow to see whether asking more ...
0answers
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### Finding an association between two methods of medical intervention and a continuous variable [duplicate]

I have here with me, two methods of intervention; a standard care method, and a specialised intervention. Different individuals receive different method, its all randomly allocated. I am trying to ...
0answers
11 views

### Getting descriptive stats and measures of association when some people have multiple measurements?

I have an observational study data set where some people have one measurement and some have 2 or 3. I don't care about the order of the measurements, nor longitudinal trend. I just want to get results ...
1answer
21 views

### Describe the graphs linear association between these two variables height and width

I have written the code below to create a scatterplot to visualize whether the two variables are linearly associated but I am not sure how you would describe this output. I would say it is not ...
0answers
42 views

### A name for the “correlation” of three variables?

I have three signals and I want to get some measure of the 'linear together-ness' between them. If they are all high or all low at the same time, that is good; if two are high and one is low that's ...
1answer
33 views

### If the datapoint furthest from the y‐axis was excluded, what would happen to the associations seen?

looking at the Figure below, what would happen to the association if the datapoint furtherst from the y-axis was excluded? Current linear association indicates: Diabetes prev = -0.0171183 x BT ...
1answer
44 views

### Why do signs of association change in multilevel logistic regression?

In given data, the outcome of interest is a binary variable (who participated in the program? yes/no). Additionally, individuals are nested within districts that create correlated binary data. I've ...
0answers
36 views

### The relation between copula and survival copula [duplicate]

There are two relations connect between copula distribution function and copula survival function I got confused between them $¯C(u,v)= u + v -1 + C(1-u,1-v)$ \$C(u,v)= 1 - ¯C(1-u) - ¯C(1-v) + ¯C(1-u,...
2answers
334 views

### How can I analyse the association between a categorical variable (binary outcome) and a continous variable especially in R?

I want to analyze the association between a binary variable and a continuous variable in R. But I am not clear about what steps I should follow. I explored the continuous variable by the histogram ...
0answers
31 views

### Are there any assumptions about row/column margins in a chi2 test?

I just learned that most tests of associations on 2x2 tables have assumptions about row and column margins being fixed or not. Is there any similar assumption when it comes to chi2 tests? Can I do ...
1answer
176 views

### How we can prove this relation for Kendall's tau

I found the relation below while studying the measure of dependence. How we can prove this relation about Kendall's tau? $$\tau = 4\int\int H(x, y)\, h(x,y)\, dx\, dy - 1$$
1answer
54 views

### Comparing observed binomial data with data simulated from a physical model

I have ~20 datasets which contain data that I assume is, conditional on a single variable, binomially distributed. I have built a physical model of the process generating the data and can simulate ...
0answers
27 views

### Which statistical analysis model to use to calculate the relationship between diabetes incidence and endothelial function?

I have longitudinal data with 2 follow ups at year 1 and 3. At baseline we have measure of endothelial function and we want to calculate the relation ship between endothelial function and diabetes ...
1answer
844 views

### Correct use of the sample weights in a complex survey design for association analysis (Logit OR)

I've doubts about the correct use of sample weights in the NHANES survey, which uses a complex, multistage probability sampling design (1). I'm aware about the importance of the use of the sample ...
1answer
926 views

### Interpretation of R output from Cohen's Kappa

I have the following result from carrying out Cohen's kappa in R ...
1answer
40 views

### Get association of categorical variables

I do a text analysis where I want to identify dependencies among categorical variables, for example let's take this dataset: ...