Questions tagged [association-measure]

Measures of the association between variables, a more general concept than correlation

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Relationship between categorical variable (depression) and a continuous variable

I appreciate this question is quite simple to ask but I want to make sure I direct myself in the right direction. I want to test the association between a continuous variable (BMI) and a categorical ...
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9 views

Large difference in contingency table level affecting Cramer's V?

The Wikipedia article for Cramer's V states the following without citation: Note that as chi-squared values tend to increase with the number of cells, the greater the difference between r (rows) ...
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How do i compare ordinal score across two or more categories? [duplicate]

I have an ordinal score ranging from ( 1 to 5 ) called "Score" I have another binary variable Human Response (Yes or No ) called "h_score" I don't think i can do correlation study in this case as ...
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Interpretation of discrepancy between prop.test and pairwise.prop.test results

My aim is to find out if infection state (pos / neg) is associated with the group of patients (A, B or C). For this analysis I have followed suggestion from How to analyze $ 2\times n$ contingency ...
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141 views

What's the added value of SD line over regression line when examining association between 2 variables?

I'm trying to incorporate different practices to use when exploring a new data set. Especially, how to examine the association between two variables. Steps for example (not necessarily by order): ...
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129 views

A bit confused on p values on ttest in Stata output

In Stata the output of a ttest shows p values as: Pr(T<t), Pr(|T|>|t|) and Pr(T>t) I understand the two sides to be the tails of the test and the middle ...
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7 views

Association test for categorical ordinal variables and binary variable?

I could just use logistic regression but is there a test of association like chi2 I could use? Thank you
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45 views

Using scatterplot before running a controlled experiment to test causality

This question is an extension of awesome thread Does causation imply correlation?. As an example, let's say that I am running an online experiment on Stackoverflow to see whether asking more ...
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13 views

Finding an association between two methods of medical intervention and a continuous variable [duplicate]

I have here with me, two methods of intervention; a standard care method, and a specialised intervention. Different individuals receive different method, its all randomly allocated. I am trying to ...
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Finding relations between events in a specific time window

i have following problem: I have a system containing several modules that, upon occurence of a problem, all send an event (containing an error code, time (is inaccurate thats why not really useful), ...
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9 views

Getting descriptive stats and measures of association when some people have multiple measurements?

I have an observational study data set where some people have one measurement and some have 2 or 3. I don't care about the order of the measurements, nor longitudinal trend. I just want to get results ...
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Measure of association adjusting for varied number of observations per person (binary outcome and predictor)

I would like to ask a question about how to alter a model to deal with varied numbers of cases per person (1 vs. 2), or, if I should deal with it some other way, some suggestion around that. I would ...
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1answer
18 views

Describe the graphs linear association between these two variables height and width

I have written the code below to create a scatterplot to visualize whether the two variables are linearly associated but I am not sure how you would describe this output. I would say it is not ...
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Probabilistic interpretation of correlated observations

I have a complicated system and I wanted to ask your advice. I have independent variables (V), some of which are associated with one or more observations (P). I am interested in variables that are ...
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1answer
28 views

If the datapoint furthest from the y‐axis was excluded, what would happen to the associations seen?

looking at the Figure below, what would happen to the association if the datapoint furtherst from the y-axis was excluded? Current linear association indicates: Diabetes prev = -0.0171183 x BT ...
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1answer
28 views

Why do signs of association change in multilevel logistic regression?

In given data, the outcome of interest is a binary variable (who participated in the program? yes/no). Additionally, individuals are nested within districts that create correlated binary data. I've ...
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21 views

Measuring Similarity or Association between unpaired data of different sizes

Is there a way to measure the association or similarity between two variables that are not paired. For instance if I have 3 variables with sample sizes of $n_{1} = 10$, $n_{2} = 15$ and $n_{3} = 15$ ...
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The relation between copula and survival copula

There are two relations connect between copula distribution function and copula survival function I got confused between them $¯C(u,v)= u + v -1 + C(1-u,1-v)$ $C(u,v)= 1 - ¯C(1-u) - ¯C(1-v) + ¯C(1-u,...
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How can I analyse the association between a categorical variable (binary outcome) and a continous variable especially in R?

I want to analyze the association between a binary variable and a continuous variable in R. But I am not clear about what steps I should follow. I explored the continuous variable by the histogram ...
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23 views

Are there any assumptions about row/column margins in a chi2 test?

I just learned that most tests of associations on 2x2 tables have assumptions about row and column margins being fixed or not. Is there any similar assumption when it comes to chi2 tests? Can I do ...
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1answer
50 views

How we can prove this relation for Kendall's tau

I found the relation below while studying the measure of dependence. How we can prove this relation about Kendall's tau? $$ \tau = 4\int\int H(x, y)\, h(x,y)\, dx\, dy - 1 $$
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1answer
31 views

Comparing observed binomial data with data simulated from a physical model

I have ~20 datasets which contain data that I assume is, conditional on a single variable, binomially distributed. I have built a physical model of the process generating the data and can simulate ...
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Interpretation of chisquare and odds ratio

I am studying te association between variables and used the chisquare test and the odds ratio of fisher exact test. I would like to know the exactly interpretation that i can do. The main variable is ...
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25 views

Which statistical analysis model to use to calculate the relationship between diabetes incidence and endothelial function?

I have longitudinal data with 2 follow ups at year 1 and 3. At baseline we have measure of endothelial function and we want to calculate the relation ship between endothelial function and diabetes ...
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38 views

Relationship between two categorical variables

I have collected data for Dish Name, Cooking Method, Type of Dish, Cuisine and Nature ( given below ). I am trying to find out relationship between Cuisine and Type of Dish. I have tried to implement ...
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1answer
398 views

Correct use of the sample weights in a complex survey design for association analysis (Logit OR)

I've doubts about the correct use of sample weights in the NHANES survey, which uses a complex, multistage probability sampling design (1). I'm aware about the importance of the use of the sample ...
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48 views

association rule graph understanding

What does the direction of arrows stand for? Some arrow going into the bubble, and some arrows pointing out the bubble to a specific item. Very lost.
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374 views

Interpretation of R output from Cohen's Kappa

I have the following result from carrying out Cohen's kappa in R ...
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1answer
27 views

Get association of categorical variables

I do a text analysis where I want to identify dependencies among categorical variables, for example let's take this dataset: ...
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5k views

If 'B is more likely given A', then 'A is more likely given B'

I am trying to get a clearer intuition behind: "If $A$ makes $B$ more likely then $B$ makes $A$ more likely" i.e Let $n(S)$ denote the size of the space in which $A$ and $B$ are, then Claim: $...
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For a meta-analysis study, is it correct to derive specific haplotypes from multiple studies that report varying number of SNPs at a gene locus?

My question is based on conducting a meta-analysis on the association of multiple variants in a single gene with a complex disorder using published case-control studies. For my study, around 5 well-...
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22 views

Optimation Association Rule Using Genetic Algorithm

i have association rules that i got from FP-Growth algorithm and i want to optimize that association rules using Genetic Algorithm so i can get the strong rules. Does anyone know how to bring the ...
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39 views

If I have less than 5 elements in a cell is there a way to use Chi Squared? [duplicate]

I have some data which has less than 5 elements in a cell, which would usually lead to fishers test being used instead. However, I'm unable to use fishers as there's not enough memory for it. chi ...
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46 views

How to measure the association/correlation between two unordered category distributions

I have seen the questions like Correlations with unordered categorical variables , but I cannot implement the chi-square test since I don't have a chi-square table representing joint distribution. ...
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1answer
31 views

Independence and strength of association between categorical variables

I am pursuing my master's thesis in Global Health at Uppsala University. One step in my statistical analysis involves "consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF)" as the independent variable (having 3 ...
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46 views

correlation between binary dependent variable and independent ones

I ran a logistic model to predict a YES/NO (equivalent to 0 or 1, that is a binary variable) through a stepwise selection (I have either categorical and numerical variables). I was then asked to ...
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Analyzing/modelling discrete numerical responses and determining associations based on categorical co-variates

I need and would be grateful for some advice regarding the analysis of some data that has been gathered and coded by a third party. The data is part of a project regarding performance in the health ...
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1answer
291 views

How to test whether the association between two continuous variables varies by a third variable?

If I have two continuous variables, and want to check whether their association varies by a categorical variable (e.g. gender), is there a formal statistical test for this? I know I can create a ...
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1answer
47 views

Association rule lift ratio converging to 0.5, is it not independent?

As far as I know, lift is a measure used in association rules to see whether there is a positive association between two items(instances?) I've done a simple (possibly wrong) simulation with lift ...
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347 views

How to compute p-value for Goodman and Kruskal's lambda and tau

How do I calculate p-values for Goodman and Kruskal's lambda and/or tau tests for association between categorical variables (measure improvement in predictability of the dependent variable given the ...
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1answer
1k views

Association, relationship and correlation

Are measures of association, relationship and correlation the same? Different textbooks uses those words interchangeably and Im wondering if the they are the simply the same...
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1answer
129 views

Calculation of relative performance gain

I want to measure the improvement of students using exam marks of semester 1 to semester 3. The following detail should be considered when calculating the measure; If Student A get 30 (sem 1) and 50 (...
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1answer
349 views

how to measure the correlation between non-normally distributed numeric variable and nominal variable?

I have two nominal variables and some numeric variables. The first nominal variable is a binary one. I want to measure the correlation between this binary variable and the other numeric variables. ...
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1answer
79 views

How can a variable have a positive association through logistic regression, yet a negative association through Cox regression?

I am undertaking some medical research using R. My outcome of interest is mortality in the intensive care unit. Data My data looks like this (there are ~15,000 rows). ...
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1answer
304 views

Why is Kendall's tau not consistent?

Kendall's tau measures the concordance between the two observations. For example, for $(X_1, Y_1)$, and $(X_2, Y_2)$, the pair is said to be concordant if $X_1 > X_2$ and $Y_1 > Y_2$, or $...
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106 views

Should I go back to do conventional logistic regression after LASSO logistic regression?

I used to use simple (multivariable) logistic regression plus stepwise regression to select important predictive variables. Though, I saw many critics on this method. Thus, I plan to use LASSO and ...
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1answer
183 views

Tail dependence of copula

There are some copula families that are able to deal with upper tail dependence (Gumbel and Joe copula) or lower tail dependence (Clayton). We can also rotate these copulae to have another copula. For ...
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1answer
223 views

What are the thresholds for strength of association?

As I was studying Cramers-V I saw two different Youtube videos authoritatively hand down 2 different sets of thresholds for strengths of measures of association. The first video said that 0-.29 was ...
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1answer
169 views

Statistical association test between ordered and unordered variable

I want to test the association between 2 variables : - one is an ordered factor from quantiles of a numeric value ("Q1", "Q2", "Q3", "Q4") - the other is an unordered factor from groups of a ...
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3answers
262 views

Generalized Sensitivity and Specificity

I'm interested in notation and terminology regarding performance measures related to Sensitivity (SEN) and Specificity (SPC). These two measures are commonly used in binary classification problems. I'...