# Questions tagged [calculus]

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### How to approximate expectation and variance of an integral from a discrete Time series financial dataset?

I have discrete time series financial data, with time($u$), price($S$) and someVariable($q$) which looks something like this. ...
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After fitting a quadratic B-spline in R with the cobs package : Rbs <- cobs(x,y, constraint= "decrease", pointwise = con) I would like to do some calculus on ...
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### what is the relation between change of variables in probability and calculus?

I want to know if the change of variables formula in probability is a special case of the change of variables in calculus, or something different. Trying to think for myself, first write the CoV for ...
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### Symmetry between integrals including absolute value

So I came across below symmetry in my probability course that I can't understand. I understand how the lower bound changes when removing the absolute value operator, but how does the 2 disappear?
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### How to calculate logarithmized average monthly returns

I am currently reading the following paper https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2750064 . On page 57 the researchers state that they calculate the logarithmized average monthly returns ...
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### Threshold optimization with two parameters where first parameter need to be minimum and second value to be maximum

We have threshold values ranging from 1 to 10 where attributes p1, p2 increase with increase in threshold. Our intention is to find threshold with minimum p1 and maximum p2. It would be of great help ...
212 views

### Law of Iterated Expectations Example

Consider a randomized experiment (AB test), where $n$ units are randomized into the treatment group $T_i=1$ and control group $T_i=0$. Let $M_i\in P$ denote the observed value of a continuous variable ...
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### Deriving linear regression gradient with MSE

So I've been tinkering around with the backpropagation algorithm and to try to get a better understanding of how it works and my calculus is quite rusty. I've derived the gradient for linear ...
312 views

### deriving z score for 95% confidence interval [duplicate]

95% of the area under the standard normal distribution lies within 1.96 standard deviations away from the mean (0). This 1.96 number is used to construct 95% confidence intervals. I was just ...
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### Calculating t-SNE gradient (a mistake in the original t-SNE paper)

This is specific to the way the gradient of the KL divergence Loss function was derived in the original paper Visualizing Data using tSNE. In the Appendix A (Page 21), where they derive the gradient, ...
663 views

### How to differentiate the distribution function of lognormal distribution with respect to its parameters?

How to differentiate the distribution function of lognormal distribution with respect to its parameters? What solution will we get? I know if differentiate wrt variable, we will get density function.!
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### Seeing chi square minimization problem as calculus of variation problem

My question will be less informative because right now I myself don't know where I am heading. Basically I want to know that whether it is possible to think a chi-square minimization problem as a ...
558 views

### Meaning of Jacobian of the transformation for pdf of function of random vectors

I am studying multivariate statistics and I don't understand the meaning of Jacobian of the transformation for pdf of function of random vectors. If I have a random vector, let's say bivariate, (X,Y)...
187 views

### What is the intuition behind neural networks?

Everywhere in the theory of neural networks, authors saying that idea came about by observing the work of the human brain. But I can not believe in that. I guess, everything is much simpler and neural ...
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### Is there local minimums in MSE function?

Here is "mean squared error" function: C = $\frac{1}{2n}$ * $\sum(length(y - a)^2)$ As I understand, this is like paraboloid in multidimensional space. So, I guess, there is only one extremum: global ...
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### What is the second derivative of a B-spline?

A B-spline of degree $j$ is defined at knots $\vec k$ by the Cox-de Boor recursion formula \begin{align} B_{i,1}(x) &= \left\{ \begin{matrix} 1 & \mathrm{if} \quad ...
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### Finding integral of minimum function. yn(1-y)^(n-1)

This is for a homework question in which I am trying to find the $E(Y_n = min\{X_1,...,X_n\}$). So far I have found that the minimum cdf, as below. The minimum of $X_i$ is when all of $X_i > x$. ...