# Questions tagged [categorical-data]

Categorical (also called nominal) data can take on a limited number of possible values called categories. Categorical values "label", they do not "measure". Please use [ordinal-data] tag for discrete but ordered data types.

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### Factor Analysis on binary data (dimensionality check before IRT) [duplicate]

I'm trying to do a factorial analysis of binary data (hit / miss) related to the results of a test that consisted of two types of items. My intention is to confirm the number of dimensions to later ...
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### Which statistical test for multiple algorithms and multiple sensors?

I am looking for the correct statistical test to compare the performance of several algorithms: Let us assume, we have S subjects and one to ...
25 views

### Interpreting $R^2$ when using a single categorical variable

My understanding of $R^2$ is that it represents three things: The linear relationship between variables in a regression. The amount of variability explained by a regression. A proxy for the efficacy ...
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### Influence of a qualitative variable on the correlation between two quantitative variables

I have a dataset composed of 3 variables for 100 individuals. Two variables (A and B) are quantitative continuous variables and we think there's a linear correlation between them. The third one (C) is ...
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### Must interacting dichotomous categorical predictors be treated as factors?

If examining the main effects of dichotomous categorical variables, the levels of which are binary and absolute (present/absent), must they be treated as factors rather than numerics? Would the answer ...
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### Is the Chi-Squared test appropriate to determine statistical significance for grouped continuous data?

For instance, if I wanted to find out if the age distribution of people at an event was reflective of population age distribution, could I group people by age (eg 0-4, 5-9, 10-14 etc) and then perform ...
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### LMMs: Random effects with categorical variables

I am setting up LMMs to assess the effect of two interventions on the clinical outcome (Y) over time. Thus, I have 2 predictors: group (between-persons, 2 levels: interventions A and B) and time (...
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### How to analyse an interaction plot with categorical response and two categorical predictors that form the interaction term?

I have computed a GLMM with BACI design, having one categorical response and two categorical predictors that form the interaction term as follows: ...
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### How to write LDA decision boundary equation using model fit output

I fit an LDA model to a dataset with 4 quantitative predictors (x1,x2,x3 and x4) to predict a response variable of 2 classes (A, B). I used the tidymodels and ...
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### Testing with multinomial covariates

I have a question about how to perform analysis and testing in this setup. I have two groups of people, one group with healthy individuals and one group with infected individuals. A questionnaire has ...
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### Can I include a dummy variable in a vector autoregressive (VAR) model? (general advice welcome)

I am attempting to run a VAR model on immigrant population, GDP, and female employment data (annual data over a 9 year period). My goal is to observe if increased immigration has an impact on local ...
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### Is it valid to treat Categorical Ordinal Data as Numerical? [duplicate]

I have a column with values 1-5 that correspond to happiness levels. I understand that this is considered as categorical-ordinal data, but is it possible to interpret values such as average or ...
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### How to compare groups that might have some dependency?

I am working with a convenience sample. Basically it is a questionnaire that is being asked to people on multiple time points. Not the same people are targeted every time but it is very likely that ...
18 views

### what is the recommended smallest value of AIC or BIC? [duplicate]

to now how small it is! in addition what value of AIC and BIC are the minimum value it get manly for categorical data analysis
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### What is the minimum size a category/group should have for unbiased predictions? skewed distributions

I am trying to find out if there is a correlation between a specific category and age. For example: if being a vegetarian has any relationship with age. The purpose is to use this information to ...
50 views

### How to plot binary vs. categorical (nominal) data? [duplicate]

I am building a machine learning model for a binary classification task in Python/ Jupyter Notebook. I am currently in the "Exploratory data analysis" phase and try to create multiple plots/ ...
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### How to interpret categorical covariates for Cox regression

I am using Cox regression to model the deterioration of bridges using covariates such as salt (tons/mile), average daily traffic (ADT), average daily truck traffic (ADTT), span length, snow day per ...
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### Optimal setup with Categorical/Discrete data using Neural Network

I need to implement a neural network whose dataset and response are composed of only 0,1, -1 values. For those with experience, which setup would you recommend (activation function, loss, neurons, etc)...
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### Is it valid to calculate Spearman/Cramér's V with duplicate values?

I have a dataset that I want to analyze using statistic measures. Because of the nature of the data, it seems like Cramér's V is the correct method (For cases involving (school) grades only, Spearman ...
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### Which statistical test should be used for comparing frequencies of a categorical variable levels by another categorical variable (figure provided)

I would like to show that marital statuses differ between different educational levels. Which statistical test should be used for this purpose? And how should I write it under my methods? METHODS: ...
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### Nominal data with large sample being separate out into 3 categories. What type of statistical test can be used?

So im working on a research proposal for a college class. I have a large sample of about 300-500. The objects in the sample will separated into 3 categories. I'm looking for some type of test that ...
63 views

### Using the Hat Matrix to detect influential observations in logistic regression

I'm currently running residual diagnostics for a logistic regression model, aiming to identify possible influential record could influence the parameters estimate. I wonder about if it is possible to ...
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### Should you still report or interpret odds ratios on levels of a factor if the likelihood ratio test is not significant?

I am running a logistic regression to study the association between a three-level factor and a binary outcome, after controlling for covariates. My sample is small to medium (~800). The likelihood ...
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### How do we calculate Standard Errors for effect-coded variables?

I'm a beginner following this UCLA tutorial to figure out how to interpret coefficients for effect-coded categorical predictors and have a couple of questions regarding their regression table below, ...
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### Correlation between nominal and ordinal variables

In my survey data I have two variables: One is an ordinal variable with 5-scale scoring from Agree to Disagree. My second variable is an nominal variable where the participants had to choose from 7 ...
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### Encode categorical variables with many labels

I am trying to predict a multiclass categorical outcome variable by comparing different classifier algorithms. I've got a dataset that includes two categorical variables that have many labels (>...
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### Post-hoc test to check for direction of association between two categorical (nominal) variables

I am working with two nominal variables for the first time and am looking for an appropriate test for the same. In the example below, I want to know if there is an association between gender and ...
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### Dimensionality Reduction on Mixed Data

If you have a dataset with not only numerical data, but also categorical and boolean. How do you approach doing dimensionality reduction to this dataset. The standard algorithms only work with ...
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### Advice on how to analyze effectiveness of two categorizations of the same data set

I have a set of samples that were categorized based on two different sets criteria. (Low vs High), and (Mild, Moderate, Severe). These categories are supposed to predict the likelihood of becoming ...
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### How to analyze time spent in mutually exclusive but related categories?

I have a question about the appropriate statistical analysis. I feel like this is one of those simple questions that I missed the class on! We study dogs in animal shelters, and our research question ...
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### What is “categorical target variable” in SAS EM

"A categorical target variable that has exactly two categories (i.e., a binary or dichotomous variable)." What is "categorical target variable" in the SAS EM space? Is this ...
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### Am I coding dummy variables for disease groups correctly in logistic regression?

Normally I would code my dummy variables as follows: Original variable levels Dummy_disease1 Dummy_disease2 Dummy_disease3 Disease 1 1 0 0 Disease 2 0 1 0 Disease 3 0 0 1 However, I dont want to ...
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### Which statistical test for two subgroups of a same survey with categorical variables?

I have a survey with 20 questions (mix nominal, ordinal, Likert scale, yes / no questions). The respondents are professors from the Maritime studies. The hypothesis is that there is a significant ...
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### Average variance extracted (AVE) with correlated error terms

after conducting a CFA I did some modifications to include correlated error terms (Error covariances) in my measurement models. Now I am wondering whether I need to apply a different formula für AVE / ...
52 views

### Which regression model is appropriate for this kind of data?

I am wondering what regression model or otherwise I could use to determine the predictors of school performance using examination results data that is structured as below. The variables are: school ...
28 views

### Outliers in binary columns

Is it possible to exist outliers in binary columns? At first I thought it was impossible based on this Outlier detection for a univariate categorical variable? , assuming that binary columns also mean ...
29 views

### Which statistical tests do I use for two categorical variables with more than two subgroups?

I have two variables. The first (will call it X) is X=(morning, afternoon, evening, night). So, 4 categorical times of day. The other (called Y) is another categorical variable, i.e., Y=(cat 1, cat 2, ...
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### Can I run the same model more than once with different levels in a categorical variable?

I plan to restructure some of the variables; so, for example, if one categorical variable has 5 levels, I want to combine the last 2 together. I was wondering though if I can (or if it would be a good ...
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### Rankings transition matrix

I have heard of ratings transition matrices in finance, where it is possible to derive the probability of moving from one rating to another in a Markov chain process. If I have N individuals who are ...
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### Dummy Coding Multiple-Select Race/Ethnicity

I'm performing some survey research and am looking to include race/ethnicity as an independent variable in a regression model. Normally, race/ethnicity would be added to the model as a set of dummy ...
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### Why is sum of squared PCA column loadings equal to corresponding Eigenvalue?

I'm wondering why or how is the sum of squared PCA loadings in the column equal to Eigenvalue. I understood that the sum of squared PCA loadings in the row is equal to 1 or 100% because original ...
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### How to measure agreement with categorical labels, and with multiple binary labels?

I have a dataset in which 7 coders have given a categorical label to each of 152 objects. The same 8 categories are selected between for all objects. I would like to measure the agreement between ...
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### Which model to use when data comes from a questionaire? 0

I have a categorical dependent variable and several nominal and ordinal independent variables. These independent variables are questions from a questionaire. But some of the questions are only ...
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### Can I still use logistic regression if some variables are not applied to all the observational units?

Some of the variables are questions that are not being asked to every single person in the questionaire depending on how they answered previous question(s). So would I still be able to use a logistic ...
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### Testing a significance of a specific coefficient in a linear regression with dummy variables and interaction

Consider the following model: $$Y_i = \alpha + \beta X_{i1} + \gamma_1D_{i1} + \gamma_2{D_{i2}} + \delta_{11}(D_{i1}X_{i1}) + \delta_{i2}(D_{i2}X_{i1}) + E_i$$ where $X_{i1}$ is a continuous regressor,...
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### Statistical test for comparing directional data

I have a dataset with number of bats flying out in 8 directions from their home site (i.e) I studied a bat colony with N individuals and I have counted the number of bats (from that colony) that flew ...
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### Analysis of correlation for individuals' answers to repeated questions

My situation is this: I have collected data in a user study where I asked people to play through and rate multiple (20) Super Mario levels in sequence. I generated these levels using an AI powered ...
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### Maximum information in dichotomous variables?

I have a number of dichotomous variables from a number of study participants, and I want to do some exploratory factor analyses and other things. However, my sample is too small to include all the ...