Questions tagged [categorical-data]

Categorical (also called nominal) data can take on a limited number of possible values called categories. Categorical values "label", they do not "measure". Please use [ordinal-data] tag for discrete but ordered data types.

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13 views

Why or when to convert a semi disperesed numeric column to a categorical column?

This is an open ended WHY TO or WHEN TO question rather than a question on HOW TO encode numeric to categorical data. I am currently working on Telco Customer Churn dataset from Kaggle. This is a ...
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Difference between CFA using WLSMV estimator and IRT

I am trying to understand the differences (or similarities) between conducting CFA on categorical data using the WLSMV in Mplus and IRT. I would appreciate any input. Moreover, is there a way to ...
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Reference for Fisher's exact test for $r \times c$ tables?

I see that in R, there is an example of running Fisher's exact test (see ?fisher.test) with an $r \times c$ contingency table with $r, c > 2$. I could not find ...
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Inter-rater agreement (raters >2) of non-random items

I ran a survey where participants (P) had to choose one category out of six (C1-C6) for each of five items. The data looks like this: ...
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How to test similar distribution of categorical data (k=3) between 2 paired samples

I'm looking for a test to compare the distributions of categorical data (3 levels: J,N,P) between 2 dependent groups (paired samples: question_1, question_2). We have 85 participants, each one of ...
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How to determine which columns make p-value result in 0.0 in contingency table?

I have a contingency table with which I am estimating if some categories are seasonal or not. I use p-value and Cramers V for that but for this question only p-value is important. The p-value resulted ...
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Within group variation for categorical dependent variable

I need some help. I am trying to test within group variations but my situation seems a little bit more complex and I’m yet to find a statistical test that caters to this situation. Or perhaps I ...
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Sensitivity test

I have an independent variable that has 3 groups - 'Yes' 'No' and 'Unknown'. I have decided that I can assume the 'Unknowns' as 'No'. I want to run sensitivity analysis to test whether making this ...
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Quarterly data - STATA [closed]

All data for the variables are quarterly.All data for the variables are quarterly. How do I put the format in quarters in the date variable? How do I place the format in quarters in the date variable ...
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Boxplot on one one significant interaction of mixed effect model

I have a mixed effect model with two interactions statistically significant : one related to a continuous variable, the time of my experiment and one in relation to a categorical variable the day of ...
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Data-preprocessing for a machine learning model

I am confused about how to preprocess range based category such as age, tumor-size & inv-nodes. Should I take an average of the limits, as in - 14.5, 24.5 and so on or do one hot encoding of the ...
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Visualizing regression with categorical variables

I am working my way through linear models in matrix form using mainly Brown (2014) Linear Models in Matrix Form. The book presents a schematic representation of observed and fitted values in a linear ...
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Probability of linear separation in a dataset with categorical response

I am simulating datasets to which I fit polytomous logistic regression models. The maximum likelihood estimator of this model is undefined when all categories are linearly separated (and it is quite ...
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What kind of statistic test should i use?

I need some help to find the correct method for my hypothesis. The aim is to find out whether the use of a certain procedure (case A: none / case B: use of my artifact) influences the time factor of a ...
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Normalizing product of ordered categorical CDFs

Let $\mathbf{p} = [p_1, \ldots, p_K]^\top$ and $\mathbf{q} = [q_1, \ldots, q_K]^\top$ define categorical distributions over a set of classes $\mathcal{C}_1, \ldots, \mathcal{C}_K$. Define $P_i = \sum_{...
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Factor analysis when I have mixture of continuous and dichotomous variables

I am trying to determine if there is a significant difference between two groups for a single continuous variable while accounting for baseline differences in dichotomous variables in each group. To ...
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1answer
26 views

How to compare two sets of categorical observations?

I have two strains of organisms, strain A and strain B. Each organism is allowed to move along a closed line segment and is initially positioned at the midpoint of the line segment. After a given ...
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two-sample test: encoding (left, middle, right) as (-1, 0, +1) [closed]

I have two sets of observations. Each observation is registered as "left", "middle" or "right". Intuitively, I encoded each observation as "-1", "0" and "+1", respectively. Next, I completed the ...
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11 views

Logistic regression: Controlling for unequal distribution in categorical variable

My question title is poorly worded but I hope I can explain my problem here. I have a dataset that contains a binary outcome variable (RP), which I would like to predict using two categorical ...
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How to process the test-retest reliability data of a questionnaire with essay questions?

I did a test-retest reliability on my survey. In my questionnaire, there are essay questions and the results are in the form of nominal data (Ex. : what is your favorite food?). I give a value of 1 if ...
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Factor analysis structured with a dependent variable (not independent variable)

A model from the social sciences has been suggested that income inequality (as a dependent variable) "causes" a range of downstream independent variables including teenage fertility, obesity etc. ...
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How to compare categorical distributions?

I have a 4 by 4 tables. Rows corresponds to people group and columns are their decisions types. The ij of the table is the percentages of people type i who have decision type j. ...
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15 views

Confidence interval for categorical samples as a percentage

I have some randomly sampled data and I'm looking to slice the data into subgroups and present an attribute as a percentage of several categories (e.g. attr == A | B...
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nested random effect - Can I nest continuous (time) and categorical variable (condition)?

Apologies for another stupid question within such a short period of time. I am struggling to include "Time" (continuous variable) in my model where I test the effects of 3 "Periods" (conditions) in a ...
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Can model comparison be performed on a single dummy variable of a 3-level categorical predictor?

Let's say I have some observations, Y, that I want to regress using a model containing two predictors, X and W. If I'm interested in whether adding X to the model improves it, according to some ...
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1answer
38 views

Continuous time (hours in decimals) interacting with a categorical variable

Apologies for the stupid question, but I appreciate any comment or suggestion. I have a dataset xdata, describing the frequency of the response variable X (behaviour - continuous) for 15 individuals (...
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Why the variable type is discrete ordinal and not interval?

Assume that we have a 5-likert scale questionnaire, we want to measure cheating behavior (plagiarism, use of crib notes, etc.) among students. We have 0-disagree and 1-agree. So I’m assuming 0.25-...
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1answer
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For companies competing in the same field, how to test if their market share changes over a period of time is siginificant

Suppose 3 companies, A, B, and C, compete for market shares in the same field. In year 1, their market shares in percentage are a1, b1, and c1. And in year 2, market shares are a2, b2 and c2. With $\...
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Can I use multiple Chi-Square tests and combine the results of the analyses or is there a better way to do this?

I have the results of a survey of employee satisfaction, where employees answer 20 questions as either "agree", "disagree", or "neutral". The questions are grouped into themes as follows: Q1-5: "...
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11 views

Removing group effects from data

I have a set of data which consists of measurements from sensors for a machine. I know that depending on what the machine is doing at the time, that several different ranges of measurement data will ...
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How Helmert Encoding is done here?

I was going through an article on Helmert Coding there I encountered an example in which I was not able to understand how Helmert coding is done. I went through How to calculate Helmert Coding this ...
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6 views

Significance test for a discrete symmetric ordinal distribution

What are possible extensions to the binomial test for a multinomial distribution? Here is a concrete examples: let's say I have 5 positive and 10 negative outcomes with a one-sided test for the null ...
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1answer
42 views

Logistic regression analysis after changing variables to factors [closed]

I have done a logistic regression with my binary outcome. Majority of my variables in my model were changed to factors as they are categorical. I put my categories into levels ie. Very Low = 1, Medium=...
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Categorical Principal Components Analysis

I performed a Categorical Principal Components Analysis in ordinal data and I created 3 dimensions. Should I use the component loadings or the object scores, as my new 3 variables?
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1answer
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Visually, how strong would you rate the association between this nominal predictor variable and continuous response variable?

I've yet to find an easy-to-understand and easy-to-implement way to statistically model the strength of association between nominal data and continuous data. So I'm trying to get a rough idea visually ...
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24 views

How to deal with 100+ levels in categorical variable in multiple linear regression? [duplicate]

Im trying to model: Y~x0+x1+x2+x3+x4, were Y is a continous variable (cost), x0 is the ...
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1answer
26 views

How to examine the relationship between categorical variables with several levels?

I would like examine if the job satisfaction of part-time workers is higher or lower compared to full-time workers. My dataset consists of 4125 cross-sectional observations. independent variable: ...
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9 views

Correlation between classes within categorical feature in a ML model

I have a dataset containing numerical and categorical features. Let's say I have one categorical feature C with classes c_0 ... c_n. I build a model that has some ...
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2answers
57 views

How to deal with problems like this ? What machine learning algorithms should be used?

I am new to machine learning and this community too. So please pardon me if i make any mistake while putting up this question. I am trying this https://www.kaggle.com/doaaalsenani/usa-cers-dataset ...
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22 views

How to use Cronbach's Alpha?

Is it appropriate to use Cronbach's Alpha for nominal variables? I have 20 nominal variables (two dimensions with 10 questions each) that ask about the characteristics of work performance. The ...
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1answer
26 views

Help with understanding logistic regression's $R^2$ value

I have a set of ordinal varies (0,1,2,3,4) and I'm trying to do binary logistic regression with a dichotomous variable (0,1). These are the values, where the numerator is = 1 and the denominator is = (...
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1answer
103 views

Multiple regression with mixed continuous/categorical variables: Dummy coding, scaling, regularization

I have a dataset, consisting of 4 continuous and 1 categorical (three levels) indepentend variable. On this dataset, I want to perform a multiple linear regression with a regularization (specifically ...
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44 views

How to analyse pre-post ordinal data?

I collected pre-post data from a randomized controlled experiment. The intervention for the experiment group is an educational game and the pre-test and post-test contains 10 multiple-choice ...
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Why/when do attitudinal scales introduce endogeneity?

I use an example to illustrate my question. I have a model that explains choice of low fat vs full fat milk, that was actually bought in a store. We model it with a binary logistic regression. The ...
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1answer
28 views

Data pre-processing on test files

I am working on a classification problem. I have a training file with a label and a separate test file without a label field. I needed to remove some rows that contained missing values from the ...
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2answers
29 views

How to test a hypothesis about two categorical data sets?

assuming we have two data sets of e-mails. All e-mails were sent to people and contain a link which was clicked. Furthermore, we know how fast the link was clicked. The first column in the following ...
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2answers
53 views

How to distinguish the continuous and categorical variable based on the number of unique values?

I have a very large dataset contained 600,000 rows and 400 columns. Most of the variables are anonymous and named as Vi, i=1,2,...,400, and all of them are either int or float. When I am dealing with ...
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Unsupervised methods for a dataset that contains ordinal categorical variables casted as numerical

I'm fairly new to statistical learning. At the moment, I'm using the EU-SILC dataset to analyse the factors that determine the French income (x). It can be found here: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/...
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27 views

Highly correlated variable, when to remove

I have a dataset that includes both course number and course name. For some models such as regression, a Pearson Correlation matrix is obtained and one of any pair of features that are highly ...
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1answer
28 views

A peer-reviewed source/textbook about correlation between a nominal (IV) and a continuous (DV) variable

I am having really hard time finding a citable source for the method described in the following link: Correlation between a nominal (IV) and a continuous (DV) variable. I found this method very ...

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