# Questions tagged [causality]

The relationship between cause and effect.

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226k views

### How exactly does one “control for other variables”?

Here is the article that motivated this question: Does impatience make us fat? I liked this article, and it nicely demonstrates the concept of “controlling for other variables” (IQ, career, income, ...
38k views

### Does causation imply correlation?

Correlation does not imply causation, as there could be many explanations for the correlation. But does causation imply correlation? Intuitively, I would think that the presence of causation means ...
47k views

### X and Y are not correlated, but X is significant predictor of Y in multiple regression. What does it mean?

X and Y are not correlated (-.01); however, when I place X in a multiple regression predicting Y, alongside three (A, B, C) other (related) variables, X and two other variables (A, B) are significant ...
6k views

### Statistics and causal inference?

In his 1984 paper "Statistics and Causal Inference", Paul Holland raised one of the most fundamental questions in statistics: What can a statistical model say about causation? This led to his ...
2k views

### Confounder - definition

According to M. Katz in his book Multivariable analysis (Section 1.2, page 6), "A confounder is associated with the risk factor and causally related to the outcome." Why must the confounder be ...
3k views

### How do DAGs help to reduce bias in causal inference?

I have read in several places that the use of DAGs can help to reduce bias due to Confounding Differential Selection Mediation Conditioning on a collider I also see the term “backdoor path” a lot. ...
61k views

### Under what conditions does correlation imply causation?

We all know the mantra "correlation does not imply causation" which is drummed into all first year statistics students. There are some nice examples here to illustrate the idea. But sometimes ...
7k views

### Transfer function in forecasting models - interpretation

I am occupied with ARIMA modelling augmented with exogenous variables for promotional modelling purposes and i have hard time explaining it to business users. In some cases software packages end up ...
723 views

### Regression and causality in econometrics

In regression in general and in linear regression in particular causal interpretation about parameters is sometimes permitted. At least in econometrics literature, but not only, when causal ...
2k views

### do(x) operator meaning?

I have seen the $do(x)$ operator everywhere in some literature review I am doing on Causality (see, for instance this wikipedia entry). However, I cannot find a formal and general definition of this ...
6k views

### Omitted variable bias: which predictors do I need to include, and why?

For a last couple of weeks I've been thinking about OVB (Omitted variable bias) in the context of regression and solution for that (how to avoid this problem). I am acquainted with Shalizi's lectures (...
2k views

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### How does propensity score matching that uses only a small proportion of eligible patients affect generalizability?

I am reviewing a paper that seeks to assess the effect of treatment on mortality using observational data about 2,985 hospitalized patients. A propensity-matched analysis ends up with 380 patients (...
6k views

### Criticism of Pearl's theory of causality

In the year 2000, Judea Pearl published Causality. What controversies surround this work? What are its major criticisms?
12k views

### Does no correlation imply no causality?

I know that correlation does not imply causality but does an absence of correlation imply absence of causality?
3k views

### Can cross validation be used for causal inference?

In all contexts I am familiar with cross-validation it is solely used with the goal of increasing predictive accuracy. Can the logic of cross validation be extended in estimating the unbiased ...
4k views

### Difference between rungs two and three in the Ladder of Causation

In Judea Pearl's "Book of Why" he talks about what he calls the Ladder of Causation, which is essentially a hierarchy comprised of different levels of causal reasoning. The lowest is concerned with ...
2k views

### Can a instrument variable equation be written as a directed acyclic graph (DAG)?

Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) are efficient visual representations of qualitative causal assumptions in statistical models, but can they be used to present a regular instrument variable equation (or ...
35k views

### Is there a test for omitted variable bias in OLS?

I am aware of the Ramsey Reset test which may detect nonlinear dependencies. However, if you just throw out one of the regression coefficients (merely linear dependencies), you may get a bias, ...