# Questions tagged [censoring]

The process of censoring yields data w/ only partial information. The most common example of censoring is *right censoring* in survival analysis, where the time until the event occurred is only known to be longer than some duration because the event had not occurred when the study ended.

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### How to model this odd-shaped distribution (almost a reverse-J)

My dependent variable shown below doesn't fit any stock distribution that I know of. Linear regression produces somewhat non-normal, right-skewed residuals that relate to predicted Y in an odd way (...
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### ML estimate of exponential distribution (with censored data)

In Survival Analysis, you assume the survival time of a r.v. $X_i$ to be exponentially distributed. Considering now that I have $x_1,\dots,x_n$ "outcomes" of i.i.d r.v.'s $X_i$. Only some proportion ...
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### Unbiased estimation of covariance matrix for multiply censored data

Chemical analyses of environmental samples are often censored below at reporting limits or various detection/quantitation limits. The latter can vary, usually in proportion to the values of other ...
25k views

### What is the difference between censoring and truncation?

In the book Statistical Models and Methods for Lifetime Data , it is written : Censoring: When an observation is incomplete due to some random cause. Truncation: When the incomplete nature of ...
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### Problem with informative censoring

I am reading "Monte Carlo Statistical Methods" by Robert and Cassella, and problem 1.3 asks In example 1.1, the distribution of the random variable $Z=\min(X,Y)$ was of interest. Derive the ...
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### Layman's explanation of censoring in survival analysis

I have read about what censoring is and how it needs to be accounted for in survival analysis but I would like to hear a less mathematical definition of it and a more intuitive definition (pictures ...
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### What exactly are censored data?

I have read different descriptions of censored data: A) As explained in this thread, unquantified data below or above a certain threshold is censored. Unquantified means data is above or below a ...
829 views

### Modelling when the dependent variable has a “cut-off”

Apologies in advance if any of the terminology I use is incorrect. I'd welcome any correction. If what I describe as a "cut-off" goes by a different name, let me know and I can update the question. ...
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### What is “Targeted Maximum Likelihood Expectation”?

I'm trying to understand some papers by Mark van der Laan. He's a theoretical statistician at Berkeley working on problems overlap significantly with machine learning. One problem for me (besides ...
17k views

### Difference between independent and non-informative censoring

I was wondering if I could get a third opinion to settle a discussion on the distinction between independent and non-informative censoring. My definitions: 1) In independent censoring, the event ...
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### How should I handle a left censored predictor variable in multiple regression?

I have a dataset (N=350) for which I would like to regress a neuropsychological test score (continuous) on age, education, symptom severity (continuous), and diagnosis (binary). Symptom severity is ...
26k views

### Right censoring and Left censoring

Wikipedia gives the following definitions: Right censoring: a data point is above a certain value but it is unknown by how much. Left censoring: a data point is below a certain value but it is ...
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### Censored logit transform for (ad hoc) exploratory data analysis

In my work I commonly have to analyze binary composition data, expressed as a fraction $f\in[0,1]$. The data $f[x]$ is spatially distributed ($x\in\mathbb{R}^n$, $n=1,2,3$), and typically comes in the ...
209 views

### Weighted normal errors regression with censoring

I have some data which I would model via standard multiple regression except: There is censoring (left-censored, fixed but varying censoring points which are known) The errors are assumed independent ...
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### Calculate E[X] from incomplete data?

The exercise I'm doing describes the random variable $X$ as the following ...
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### Do we have a problem of “pity upvotes”?

I know, this may sound like it is off-topic, but hear me out. At Stack Overflow and here we get votes on posts, this is all stored in a tabular form. E.g.: post id voter id vote type ...
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### How should I model a continuous dependent variable in the $[0, \infty]$ range?

I have a dependent variable that can range from 0 to infinity, with 0s actually being correct observations. I understand censoring and Tobit models only apply when the actual value of $Y$ is partially ...
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### If $Z_i =\min \{k_i, X_i\}$, $X_i \sim U[a_i, b_i]$, what is the distribution of $\sum_iZ_i$?

Assume the following set up: Let $Z_i = \min\{k_i, X_i\}, i=1,...,n$. Also $X_i \sim U[a_i, b_i], \; a_i, b_i >0$. Moreover $k_i = ca_i + (1-c)b_i,\;\; 0<c<1$ i.e. $k_i$ is a convex ...
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### Informative censoring caused by cesarean section

I study labor and delivery as an epidemiologist. It is well established that a large fetus has a higher risk of causing maternal birth trauma. But a large baby is also likely to be delivered by ...
679 views

### Fitting distributions on censored data

My question deals with fitting distributions on censored data; for the purposes of clarity, we can consider a continuous distribution which is both left and right-censored. In such a case, the ...
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### Can a Cox proportional hazards model be used on general left-censored data (i.e. non-survival data)?

A familiar problem in applied science is having censored data, in particular left-censored data arising due to an assay or piece of equipment having a lower limit of detection (LOD). Assuming a ...
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### What are the mean and variance of a 0-censored multivariate normal?

Let $Z \sim \mathcal N(\mu, \Sigma)$ be in $\mathbb R^d$. What are the mean and covariance matrix of $Z_+ = \max(0, Z)$ (with the max computed elementwise)? This comes up e.g. because, if we use the ...
510 views

### How can I estimate the time at which 50% of a binomial variable will have transitioned?

I have the following data, representing the binary state of four subjects at four times, note that it is only possible for each subject to transition $0\to 1$ but not $1\to 0$: ...
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### How to cope with missing data in logistic regression?

I'm investigating optimal bidding in auctions, and am using logistic regression to predict the probability of winning an auction given a set of explanatory variables (e.g. the price I bid, number of ...
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### Fit a Weibull distribution to…right-censored data?

Premise: I know next to nothing about survival analysis, I just started. I have a vector of failure times for some machines. Most of the machines (3362 vs 2694) are still running today, so I know they ...
328 views

### Estimating right-censored data

I am VERY new to stats. I have a large amount of life-time data (delay in arrival since start of experiment) from repeat experiments. Some data is missing, but essentially represents a delay longer ...
495 views

### Simple case of MNAR missing data

I believe I have a very simple problem with missing data, but I'm a bit lost because all the materials I read seem to be focused on much more complicated cases. I have a random variable $X$ which has ...
126 views

### Deriving the distribution of the sum of censored variables

I want to be able to calculate the distribution of $$Y = \sum_{i=1}^n\max\{0,X_i\}$$ where the random variable $X_i\sim N(\mu_i,\sigma_i)$. Is the calculation of $f_Y(y)$ possible and if so what is ...
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### LASSO or other regularized regression with censored (missing) data

Here is my problem. I am looking at various time series curves. Let's call them total spend aggregated over all customers on various products versus time. At any given time, I want to predict the ...
632 views

### Statistics for rounded data

I wonder about the existence of "standard" statistical procedures for rounded (log)normal data. Indeed, in my work I often encounter rounded data which potentially cause some problems: "awful" qqplots,...
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### Finding the mean of right-censored values

I wanted to check how fast an average colleague of mine is able to complete a puzzle, so I ran some experiments. The problem is they weren't done in exactly 50 minutes, I always got bored and moved on ...
315 views

### Learning a continuous model from binned data

A very similar question has been asked before, but it didn't get a real answer. Background I would like to develop a probability model for a continuous, ratio-scale random variable $Y$. Let's say it ...
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### How to get R squared/goodness of fit for Tobit model in R?

I do a Tobit regression to analyze censored data. To measure the goodness of fit the authors of these papers use Efron's $R^2$. So my idea is to use this one as well. To realize my Tobit regression, ...
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### Handling survival data where people join at various stages

My question is about survival analysis. According to this censoring is a condition in which the value of a measurement or observation is only partially known. For example, suppose a study is ...
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### Inference with only left-censored data

Suppose I have a data set that is only left-censored data, ex: <5, <5, <5, <10, <10, <10 A technique to handle left-censored data is the Kaplan Meier estimate, see page 5 of this ...
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### Should one use a censored survival model when an event is only observed at death?

A colleague of mine is trying to estimate how neutron radiation exposure changes cancer incidence rates (in mice). He has autopsy data that reports whether a cancer was observed at the time of death, ...
745 views

### How to estimate parameters of a distribution with left-truncated and right-censored data?

I have been trying to find the best way of estimating parameters for a known pdf from a data-set that is left-truncated and right-censored. More precisely, I have lifetimes for a system where there ...
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### Poisson regression on devices that fail during observation period?

I am observing N devices over a period of time $[0,T]$ and counting the number of certain events $y_j$, for each device, during that period of time. I also have some specifications $x_j$ for each ...
688 views

### Right-censored independent variable in Cox/logistic regression

I have a right-censored continuous independent variable that I want to include in a Cox regression. The variable is a physiologic test which is capped at a certain time, say 120 seconds, due to safety ...
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### Inference for a distribution with different number of samples due to censoring

I have the following problem in case someone has an idea about how to solve this. Assume three experiments that refer to the same population for a random variable $X$. In the first experiment, I ...
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### Poisson regression for ordered variables

I have three waves of data, and I am trying to estimate group-based trajectories of binge drinking across the three waves. The question asked (at all three waves was): “Over/During the past 12 months, ...
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### Method for fitting censored data in R

I have 320 data points - each has a redshift and a turnover-frequency, and I want to fit a correlation between them (a linear fit). However, 120 of the turnover-frequency values are upper limits. As ...
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### Version of Mann-Whitney U test, for right-censored data

Is there an equivalent of the Mann-Whitney U test, but for right-censored data? I have right-censored numerical data from two different groups. The mean for one group is higher than the other. I'd ...
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### Best way to handle na values in regression predictor variable

I am running a multinomial logistic regression model in R (using the multinom function from the nnet package) with a set of 12 ...
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### Is it possible to model BOTH censoring and truncation in BUGS?

Survival times are often right censored and left truncated. From my experience, it does not seem like OpenBUGS allows for both. Truncation is denoted as T( , ) and censoring as C( ,). For instance, a ...