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Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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factor scores from CFA in lavaan

I have the covariance matrix and an already fitted lavaan object (and/or model) using the cov matrix. But, I do not have the raw data. Is there a way I can calculate the factor scores?
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Resampling or simulating orginal data to assess validity of experimental measure

I would like to conduct combination of EFA and CFA to assess if the measure I've designed to evaluate results of an experiment fits into proposed theoretical model or not. My theoretical model ...
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How to estimate a measurement model (CFA) with both latent and observed variables affecting measurements in lavaan?

I'd like to estimate a CFA model where measures are determined by both latent variables and other observed variables. I can do this by creating place-holding latent variables for the observed ...
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How can Factor Analysis be used to remove questions from a survey?

Suppose I have a psychological questionnaire asking 30 questions about a person's mental health (on a Likert-scale 1-7). These 30 questions fall into 7 separate, but correlated categories. The ...
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Is there a point to using EFA for scale validation when you can always fit a second-order CFA?

I have been trying to understand the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis for the purpose of scale validation. Say you have developed a scale to measure construct X, which is supposed to be one unified ...
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how can I perform confirmatory factor analysis when covariance matrix contains missing values?

I have dataset of test items which were administered in blocks. As a result, not all students answered each test item and there are some pairs of items for which no observations are shared, ...
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In CFA, does it matter which factor loading is set to 1?

I'd been previously taught that, aside from the fact that fixing a loading to 1 means you won't get a significance test on that loading, it was totally arbitrary which loading got fixed to 1. However,...
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Do I report the pvalue of the standardized or unstandardized factor loading in CFA/SEM?

Using lavaan, for a simple CFA or SEM with measurement tools, you can use parameterEstimates(fit, standardized=TRUE) to get the standardized factor loadings for the ...
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$H_0$ and $H_1$ of $\chi^2$ test in confirmatory factor analysis

I am struggling to find a good text on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (an old thread on the topic has little to offer) and so have some basic questions on CFA. What exactly are the null and the ...
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1answer
17 views

EFA over time where changes in the factors are of interest

I am asking to find out if an idea that popped into my head is a real thing or just silly. EFA often presumes the data are static. I know there are forms of EFA that take time into account, but I ...
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1answer
49 views

Checking error covariances between indicator variables in sem/cfa

I'm learning SEM/CFA, and am currently following Beaujean's (2014) book on using lavaan. In the chapter where he talked about CFA and the number of indicator variables to have to ensure the model ...
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Should AVE and CR be estimated with EFA?

I have conducted an exploratory factor analysis with maximum likelihood (MLFA) and oblique rotation (Promax). I am now trying to estimate validity and reliability (AVE, CR, etc.) moving beyond ...
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Why do I get an error with this data using principal axis factoring but not minimal residual factoring?

I am using n_factors() from the "psycho" package in R to figure out the number of factors for a set of data. When I use prinicipal axis factoring I get the following error: ...
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My question is about factor covariance in CFA

I did a CFA for a scale with 4 factors. the model is fitted( RMSEA, CFI, GFI...) But some factors covariance is very low and also χ2/df is significant.Is it a problem? Thanks
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Linear Regression Perfectly Predicts Latent Variables

I'm having trouble understanding the relationship between the latent variables produced by the CFA function in R's Lavaan package, and linear regression. I have used one of Lavaan's built-in data ...
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1answer
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How do I specify a lavaan sem model with more than one single-indicator factor?

I am trying to specify a lavaan CFA that has some factors with three or more indicators, one factor with two indicators, and two factors with one indicator. For the single indicator factors, I tried ...
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How to Determine Appropriate Values for Correlated Uniqueness in SEM Simulation?

I am trying to run a simulation of power/bias for a particular SEM, in which a number of correlated uniquenesses will need to be specified. I know how to determine the appropriate values of the ...
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Acceptable CFI but poor TLI

I'm working on a path analysis using lavaan in R. Here is my model fit result: Chi square: >.05 Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI): 0.94 Tucker Lewis Index (TLI): 0.86 Root Mean Square Error of ...
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Lavaan LavPredict when samples have 0 variance

I am using Lavaan to perform a Confirmatory Factor Analysis on a dataset of 10,000 League of Legends games. The features of the dataset are certain variables of the games like kills, deaths, gold ...
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Evaluating measurement invariance with lavaan and ordered data

I am running a measurement invariance in lavaan in R. I am comparing a measure of sociocultural appearance pressures across White and Black women. Because this is a 5-point scale, I am treating the ...
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2answers
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AIC and BIC come out as NA when running CFA in R

Does anyone have ideas why when running a CFA in R I'm getting most of my fit statistics to calculate, but AIC and BIC are both NA? I load lavaan, SEMplot, SEMtools, and haven; load the file (have ...
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Reasons for markedly different results using MLR vs. WLSMV in CFA?

A scale I examined has a 6-point likert scale and detailed anchor points. In addition, the items are distributed skew. I did a CFA with MLR as well as with WLSMV. With WLSMV as estimator, the scale ...
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What is the meaning of r-squared values in confirmatory factor analysis?

When all fit indices are acceptable, are r-squared values still important? Some of my r-squared values are very low (such as $0.10$).
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When to fix covariances between latent factors in SEM?

I am trying to run a three-factor model. When I do not fixed any of the covariances between these variables, I get an error message saying the model is probably unidentified. When I fix one of the ...
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İtem parcelling for CFA

To conduct EFA and, then CFA, I did transformation for non-normal distribution items. For CFA I want to do item parceling. in this case, should I use transformed items? Or, if I know that I will do ...
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Too many factors extracted from EFA!

I am constructing a scale. I have 80 items and 300 sample data. I ran EFA - Principal Axis Method of extraction and direct oblimin rotation in SPSS. I have 23 factors (using both Eigen value and ...
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How to compare non-nested models (with different number of items) in CFA?

I investigate the factor structur of an existing scale in a data set with N = 714 (using lavaan, R). In this context I would like to compare to alternative models: Model 1: Two factors with 5 items ...
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27 views

Error variance may not be identified. LISREL

I am conducting CFA for a variable in my study. It has two sub-dimensions, say D1 and D2. On conducting CFA with only first-order factors, my model runs fine and there is a strong correlation among ...
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How to control/correct for response bias in survey or questionnaire data for Factor Analysis

I would like to apply Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to a Likert-type questionnaire data. It is supposed that this data is affected by response bias: some patients either overestimated or ...
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How many factors are there in EFA?

I have been adapting scale. CFA have not confirm structure. Therefore, I did EFA. EFA result showed that scale has four factor. But one factor has one or two item. How is this result interpreted? I ...
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1answer
28 views

In scale adaptation which should be done first? CFA or Reliability Analysis

I am adapting questionnaire cross-cultural. Questinonnaire has 11 item and two factor. I want to confirm the structure 1 item's corrected item total correlation is <.20. Should this item be ...
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Modification of Model after EFA and CFA

I have the following problem: for my master thesis I am, or rather was trying to validate a scale on relationship cognitions in a different cultural context (germany/western vs. malaysia/asian) Since ...
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1answer
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CFA lavaan - reasons for bad fit?

I investigate the psychometric properties of an existing scale in a data set with N = 714. The structure originally assumed by the authors is the following, from which different index scores (...
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Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models?

Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models? If yes, how are they nested? Are EFA and/or ESEM models and more restrictive CFA models on the same data ...
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How to explain variance in SEM?

I am writing a paper discussion based on SEM findings to a non-statistical audience. For example, how do we explain the concept of R-square (variance) in plain language -- 'The model rationalizes a ...
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1answer
123 views

CFA: examining model fit and modification indices for single factor variables before examining the full model.

I'm examining a questionnaire believed to have two-factors (7 items on each variable) from previous Exploratory Factor Analysis. Looking at it using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), the fit is ...
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LM Stat - Confirmatory Factor Analysis

The output of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis provides the "LM Stat provides a rank order of the 10 largest LM stat for Path Relations." Can we include more than one path into the model or are we ...
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1answer
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis - Variance Parameters - Error Variance Estimates

I am referring to a confirmatory factor analysis output. I am curious to know how do we interpret the "Variance Parameters" Output containing the "error variance estimates" if the predictors are ...
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Running EFA and CFA on the same population at different time point

The participants filled in the questionnaires at 6-month intervals. Since the questionnaires detect changes, which I think would not affect the factor structure. (And the EFA on the 1st time point do ...
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779 views

“The model is probably unidentified” AMOS

I am doing a CFA in AMOS and I keep getting the error message: "The model is probably unidentified. In order to achieve identifiability, it will probably be necessary to impose 1 additional constraint....
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1answer
38 views

CFA Interpretation

I am trying to teach myself how to do CFA on the fly, with no formal training in statistical analysis (my first grad course on quantitative analysis is next semester). I believe that I have figured ...
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Two-way ANOVA on the effect of gender and age on factor scores obtained through EFA?

A questionnaire consisting of 24 Likert-type questions was developed and distributed to the participants. The questionnaire had not been validated in the past, therefore, exploratory factor analysis (...
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1answer
180 views

Fitting issues when including certain combination of variables with lavaan::cfa()

I am trying to fit 13 ordinal indicator variables to a single factor, but there are three of them that will result in a warning when they're included simultaneously. You can find the code below (data ...
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99 views

Higher order CFA in lavaan- weird error message about missing value

I conducted a CFA with lavaan, which worked fine. However, when I tried to do the exact same model, only with a second higher order latent factor that is explained by all other factors, I got a very ...
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27 views

Comparing two CFAs in r (each CFA has a different sample)

I conducted separate CFAs on a measure with 4 dimensions. One CFA was conducted in men and the other in women. I have been asked to compare the two models. I can do this in r using the anova function ...
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1answer
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How to conduct confirmatory factor analysis with small sample size?

I plan to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis, wherein there are 12 observed variables and 3 latent variables. My sample size is 30. However, I read that to conduct a factor analysis, the sample ...
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38 views

When during CFA to test common method variance

When evaluating common method variance is this performed during the initial CFA or after the model has been refined (i.e. when some items may be been removed from the model)? I have several models ...
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) concrete estimation example

I'm looking for a simple concrete example of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. What are the precise steps? What I (think) understand so far: Get data (random sample). Bring in a theory along the line of ...
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158 views

Extracting Factor Scores of Latent Variables after CFA in AMOS

I plan to extract the latent variables' factor scores after conducting Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). I will use these factor scores as explanatory variables for my next statistical procedure - ...
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1answer
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AMOS: CFA testing invariance, but cannot name intercepts

I'm using AMOS to run a 2-factor model with 5 indicators each (10 in total). I'm assessing the invariance. So I'm assessing the invariance for sex. While the configural and metric invariance worked ...