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Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to test and describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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Lavaan Estimator

I did a three-wave study with repeated measured for each wave.I have two questions: I am doing a CFA for a configural model (testing temporal invariance for each variable of my model at 3 points in ...
Madisca's user avatar
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Should I use raw score or z-score for CFA?

I am running confirmatory factor analyses and my variables have different scales. I wonder whether I should use raw score and report factor loadings of std.all ...
user21531215's user avatar
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How many covariances can we draw between error estimates to modify the hypothesized model of CFA using AMOS?

I ran a confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS and the indices values required for model fit were below the required value so I draw covariance between error terms to modify model. the question I want ...
user414035's user avatar
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Factor Scores explain less Variance than Item means in a multilevel cfa

I conducted a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in lavaan on repeated measures questionnaire data (satisfaction with travel scale). 42 participants had ...
StatOru's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
30 views

What does it mean when a CFA model improves drastically by ommiting a factor?

I am trying to fit a CFA model with four factors (say F1 with 4 indicators, F2 with 6 indicators, F3 with 3 indicators and F4 with 5 indicators) in Amos. Each indicator is computed by summation of ...
M. Er's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why do I get smaller degrees of freedom for the Scalar invariance model than the Metric one while testing measurement invariance?

I am trying to test the measurement invariance in my bi-factor model with CFA tests. I have 23 binary questions coded "correct" and "incorrect" and 3 different groups in my data. ...
Enes Bayrakoglu's user avatar
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1 answer
40 views

What problems could arise in factor analysis, if I roll out my survey in small parts and do I have to perform validity theme and subtheme level both

I am currently designing an employee engagement survey, which has 6 themes and 20 sub themes and each sub theme got at least 4-5 questions, so I have two questions. Can I roll out survey theme wise ...
Rahul Kiroriwal's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
147 views

Question- How to read the CFA results using the ordered statement in Lavaan package for ordinal data?

I am using the ordered statement in my CFA model when running lavaan in R, but I couldn't figure out how to read the results. I ...
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Demystifying CFA Models for Longitudinal Analysis of Latent Variables

TLDR; there are 3 approaches I have come across to longitudinal CFA (not SEM) and I am not sure which one is appropriate for simple dimensionality reduction. I have come across 3 common flavors of CFA ...
Maurice Pasternak's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
185 views

Item Aggregation Methods in CFA

I've been trying to find any references which have discussed the legitimacy of any item aggregation methods prior to conducting CFA, but I'm coming up short. Here's my context: Large survey with 6 ...
Peter Wesley Odom's user avatar
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I get very different and inconsistent model fit indices and test statistics every time I run the cfa.mi models with the same imputed categorical data

I am trying to test the measurement invariance in my one-latent-factor model. I have 24 questions coded "correct" and "incorrect" and 3 different groups in my data. The sample ...
Enes Bayrakoglu's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
148 views

How to calculate Mardia's multivariate normality in Mplus?

I would like to assess the multivariate normality of the structural equation model (SEM) in Mplus. I have a few questions regarding this matter: How can I examine multivariate normality, specifically ...
İpek Gülsün's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
121 views

SEM: Normal-theory Maximum Likelihood fitting function

I took a few courses where model estimation via Maximum Likelihood in Structural Equation Modeling was discussed. There was one definition of the normal-theory ML fitting function that I also found in ...
hanna-without-h's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
55 views

Response style as an alternative explanation for latent mean differences under scalar invariance?

I established scalar measurement invariance for a two-group CFA. The output from my final model showed that the latent mean in group 1 is lower than the latent mean in group 2. Can this difference in ...
user321797's user avatar
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97 views

How to compute factor loading manually in CFA

How to calculate factor loading manually in CFA? Can anyone explain it by giving the equation and if so, can you give an example too?
Garas Ikrar's user avatar
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1 answer
114 views

CFA: chi-square value is 0 but with degrees of freedom

I want to do a SEM analysis with an actor-partner interdependence model in Mplus. I managed to calculate it and everything seems right if I look at the means, SD's, ...
Axenox's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
39 views

longitudinal measurement invariance - why do loadings for latent factor changed signs?

I have run separate EFAs and then CFAs on the second half of the dataset to confirm the solution and the one-factor solution fits well across time points. One weird thing is happening though when I ...
CatM's user avatar
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lavaan: std.lv versus std.all interpretation for (essentially) tau-equivalent models

A (essentially) tau-equivalent model has the following specifications: the factor loadings are constrained to be equal the intercepts are constrained to be equal (tau-equivalent) or allowed to vary ...
hanna-without-h's user avatar
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2 answers
188 views

Should I perform CFA after the EFA and then move to multiple regression analysis with the outcomes?

I have gathered 41 variables that are supposed to explain dependent variable Y in a dataset. Is the following reasonable? First, I will conduct EFA, reduce the dimension, conduct CFA to confirm/reduce....
Kasere's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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CFA - How do within-factor error covariances affect how a psychometric scale is used/scored?

I'm working on a confirmatory factor analysis for a measure with one factor, 8 items, each is a 7-point Likert scale. Two items within the factor are worded very similarly and their errors are likely ...
JH22's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
108 views

Psychometrics - transferability of CFA and factor loadings to observed scores/sum scores in scale development

I have come across a situation in a dataset using a not very used scale, evaluated partly using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA has provided support for a number of subscales. In some of ...
anna mariasson's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
101 views

Lavaan and semTools partial measurement invariance syntax

I am running measurement invariance in Lavaan using a 7 item ordinal scale. I have been using Lavaan and semTools, and specifically the measEq.syntax command, due to the fact it easily implements Wu ...
Josh Blake's user avatar
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1 answer
108 views

Measurement invariance: Model fit increases with increasing constraints

I have run into the same problem repeatedly, namely that model fit increases with increasing model restraints. I want to compare measurement invariance on a three-factor model (based on previous CFAs ...
Viktoria Birkenæs's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
204 views

"The model is probably unidentified" in AMOS - how to fix this?

I am trying to fit a second-order factor in AMOS (where 'AA', 'AB', and 'AC' are thought to be facets of the higher-order factor 'AD'). I am getting the error message "Result (Measurement model) ...
wiwanlk's user avatar
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1 answer
199 views

R syntax of a second-order factor analysis. Does it work if one factor from the first order only consists of 2 items?

I tried the following syntax: ...
mr_js's user avatar
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0 answers
71 views

Factor Analysis in Deep Learning

I'm new to deep learning and currently trying to use it for my project. The goal is to predict ship charter prices based on various factors that we have identified theoretically. In this project, we ...
Yohanes Yordan's user avatar
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1 answer
62 views

define latent variables and measurment model in SEM

Does a latent variable in SEM need to be defined by validated scale or can you "imagine" one? For instance, I work on school participation (defined in research by attendance to school and ...
Adeline Lacroix's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
157 views

Why do matrices of simulation data generated in R create strongly related latent variables?

When creating examples of matrices for CFA in R for students, I still have a problem with getting data that looks realistic - specifically, that between latent variables I often have covariance path ...
kwadratens's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
49 views

Can I compare a parallel and congeneric model with lavaan::anova()?

I want to compare two 1-factor models: (a) a congeneric model where the loadings are optimally weighted; and (b) a parallel model where the loadings are fixed to 1 (equally weighted). ...
Eric Green's user avatar
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0 answers
144 views

lavaan - sem with second order factor problem

I have a model in which I set relationships among different variables. One of them is a second-order factor. However, I get the following problem when I try to run the analysis: Warning messages: 1: ...
Jose MC's user avatar
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87 views

is a threshold model on ordinal data ~ a link function? SEM OpenMx

Are anyone familiar with OpenMx's capacity for handling ordinal data in SEM using a link function like ordered logit or probit (Stata gsem does this)? Some folks have highlighted issues with feeding ...
Johan's user avatar
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What are considered "voodoo fit indices" and "true"/"fake" standard errors? SEM CFA

In a conversation about fitting CFA with clusters and sampling weights (inverse probability weights) for ordered/ordinal/categorical data in R Lavaan, fit indices (GoF) were referred to as "...
Johan's user avatar
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0 answers
83 views

Keep or remove insignificant covariance values when modifying CFA model?

I am working to improve goodness of fit in a CFA model and am wondering about if I should retain added covariance values that are insignificant. I am adding covariances that are indicated by ...
Rachelb's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
100 views

Lavaan modificiation indices are already in CFA model?

I am trying to improve the fit for my CFA model below. ...
Rachelb's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
74 views

Risk perception measurement using CFA - Items with different scale

I am working on my risk perception model using three measures- probability, affection, and severity. I have one item on a Likert scale (1-5) for each probability and affection. However, for the ...
Snehalata Sainjoo's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
133 views

Is it possible to use Bootstrap Bias-corrected confidence intervals when performing SEM?

As far as I know, Co-variance based SEM requires the normality assumption. To avoid violating this assumption, I am considering using Bootstrap Bias-corrected method intervals for hypothesis testing ...
anhthunguyenngoc's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
24 views

CFA with lavaan: Standard errors not computable [duplicate]

I am not that much experiencend in R and I want to run a CFA. The code is as follows: ...
user384307's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
374 views

Comparing multigroup CFAs: Improved fit with more restrictions

I have conducted a CFA for a one-factor measurement model and then proceeded to do multigroup CFAs to test for measurement variance for gender and age (binary variable, median split). Testing for ...
André's user avatar
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0 answers
87 views

Split Sample for EFA and CFA with Smaller Dataset

I have a dataset (n=290) that I need to run an EFA. I was hoping to also run a CFA but I'm unsure if I have enough data to do a split sample approach. Please advise.
user383410's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
47 views

Adding invariance restriction leads to eigenvalue close to zero - can invariance be stated, nevertheless?

I am testing invariance between two groups. Configural and metric invariance is given. When adding the restriction of equal intercepts, lavaan gives me the warning that the smallest eigenvalue is ...
mkks's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
301 views

Robustification in lavaan: Difference between M, MV and MVS?

In lavaan, I am running a two-factor CFA on a questionnaire with 28 items, all of which are scored on a 6-point Likert scale. In total I have ~350 participants who completed the questionnaire. Because ...
LJFlameling's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
203 views

plotting congeneric lavaan model

I would like to produce this type of figure from the article "Thinking twice about sum scores". Figure 3 shows the path diagram of a congeneric model for the same data used in Fig. 1. The ...
Eric Green's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
768 views

SEM: Difference between unidentified, underidentified, and underdetermined models?

It's been asserted to me that there is a difference between underidentified and unidentified models in that: Underidentified models can still be estimated and solutions can be obtained, but they are ...
user1205901 - Слава Україні's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for transcriptomic data

I am doing an EFA for transcriptomic data (n=202, p=190). I did log-transformed the data because of skewness. My question is, do I have to do false discovery rate (FDR) analysis at all prior to my EFA....
Shehab's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
1 answer
196 views

CFA with R - small sample size - also different outcomes at different times

I have the following problem: We have a model of 3 latent variables with 8 observed variables each. Our sample size is 19, which can't be upped because it is a special subgroup of the population and ...
Tim's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
120 views

Can I use result (latent variables) from CFA as input to ANOVA (dependant variable)?

I am currently writing a paper. And I am not sure if I can use latent variable defined through CFA, as a dependent variable in ANOVA. Thank you for help!
Stanka Poizlova's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
68 views

How to use CFA in R to justify averiging of Likert scale and further calculation

I am currently writing a paper for school and currently have 3 sections of questionnaire questions based on the Likert scale, where each section has 4 questions that I need to group together. Further, ...
Stanka Poizlova's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
177 views

Lag variables on OLS after PCA (Principal Components Analysis)

I have about 60 macroeconomic and financial indicators; all of them stationary (logs and differencing), with monthly data for the last 25 years. I am trying to predict changes in a financial variable (...
Invisible Hand's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
199 views

What is the discrepancy function in structural equation modeling?

Excerpt from Book I am currently trying to improve my knowledge of structural equation modeling, and have been reading through Structural Equation Modeling with Lavaan by Gana & Broc to do so. ...
Shawn Hemelstrand's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
36 views

Equation of model to predict latent and observed variables

I'm struggling to interpret my SEM results and extract the "regression equation" that generates yhat. Using lavaan in R, this is my model that I want to estimate. ...
Jota's user avatar
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