Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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What is a "method factor" in confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling?

Researchers employing structural equation models and confirmatory factor analyses often choose to include a "method factor" in their models. My understanding is that this is intended to ...
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Discriminant Validity - Chi Square Test

To check discriminant validity between two constructs for CFA in AMOS, I am using chi square difference test to confirm discriminant validity which "can be assessed for two estimated constructs ...
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How to test the significance of contribution of a variable in Factor analysis and what is the resonable rule for removing a variable from FA?

My question is about the credibility from the statistical point of view of what I have seen in some papers where the researchers (non-statistician) define some kind of staged factor analysis (FA) and ...
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Required sample size of CFA using power analysis from semPower

I want to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for a model with 4 latent variables and 60 indicator variables (15 per factor, uncorrelated factors, hence 1,710 degrees of freedom, that is, ...
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Multilevel CFA in R (lavaan); Error: No variance within some clusters

I am running a multilevel CFA in R package lavaan (following the process by Dyer, Hanges, & Hall, 2005). I was able to run an individual-level CFA, and examine both the within group covariance ...
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measurement invariance with many groups

I want to compare how the level of XY (measured using a psychomentric "XY" scale) impacts on the total score of another psychometric instrument (PT score) when controlled for some other ...
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Appropriate standardized solution for a CFA of one latent variable, and multiple ordinal indicators

I am currently working on a CFA in OpenMx, where a standardized latent variable is estimated by multiple ordinal indicators with means and variances restricted to 0 and 1, respectively. According to ...
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Is it necessary to do a second order CFA to create a total score summing across factors?

I am in the process of developing a scale. I have already performed EFA on the first dataset I collected, which showed strong support for a 4 factor structure. I am now planning to collect another ...
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Scale development

I am in the process of developing a scale that is supposed to measure construct X with 4 factors. I have already found support for a 4-factor model to the data using exploratory factor analysis. Now, ...
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Why standardized factor loading > 1 ? (CFA in lavaan)

I am runing CFA in R with the lavaan package. My model is one factor with 5 variales. I set std.lv = TRUE, but the estimated factor loading is still > 1. Can I report the std.all column as my ...
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Which model fit indices do you report from lavaan cfa for scale development?

For RMSEA there seems to be a regular value and two robust values. Are there any recommendations on which of the three values to report? Would you report 1, 2 or 3 from lavaan?
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Why don't I have metric measurement invariance even with very small differences between factor loadings across groups?

Background: I'm running a multi-group model in lavaan. It has two groups: One clinical sample (n = 160) and one healthy control sample (n = 248) that I chose to be comparable regarding age, gender and ...
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Bifactor model. Specific factor collapsed and shifted

I ran a bifactor model and there was a strongly defined general factor and appreciable leftover variance for specific factor A but not specific factor B. When I removed one item that loaded poorly to ...
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Estimated covariance matrix and sample covariance matrix of SEM

Normal Covariance I have tried looking high and low for an answer to this question, but I seem to never get a great answer on it. First, I think I'm knowledgeable about what a covariance matrix is. It ...
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Chi-Square Tests with MLE in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

I have a basic question about confirmatory factor analysis. When performing CFA, Chi-square test is often used. I read from the book that after using MLE for factor extraction (computing covariance ...
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what are the right or common steps to successfully build a structural equation model?

I have learned theories about structural equation modeling but don't have enough experience building a structural equation model. I have spent too much time struggling with building a good SEM. I have ...
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Justify the deletion of a factor in EFA

I have done an EFA on 180 observations. In order to explain my latent variables I have considered 24 variables and I get 7 factors. Unfortunately 2 factors among the 7 have a cronbach's alpha around 0....
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sumscores instead of factorscores or SEM

Suppose I would like to use sumscores after running a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with two latent factors. The items for each factor are then summed and in subsequent analyses these sums are ...
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Within ML CFA with categorical data (polychoric correlation), are there not different thresholds for both the within and between level?

I am currently studying multilevel confirmatory factor models of categorical data. In the context of CFAs, categorical data is often analysed through polychoric correlations. Within polychoric ...
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) for nested data

I would like to conduct CFA to examine support for a 3-factor model with team_cohesion, team_trust, and team_performance variables. I have the data in the following format with individuals rating the ...
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Bifactor Model in R: High factor loadings but non-significant p-values

I'm currently running an bifactor model (R - lvaan) with one general factor and three domain specific factors (X1, X2, X3). The dataset contains 18 items, of which it is assumed in theory that six ...
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The scale I am developing for a main study has partial metric and partial scale invariance. Can I still use this in my study?

I'm developing a scale that will be later used in a main study. This study will take place in the UK and France. The scale itself consists of 9 items. I initially tested the scale in UK participants ...
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Preparing Likert Data for CFA

I've been running a CFA on Likert scale data that averages the responses for each item, and I've been thinking that if I could possibly run the analysis without averaging the responses, it might ...
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Fix second-order factor loadings to equal in all second-order factors with two first-order factor indicators? CFA / SEM

I am conducting a CFA followed up by a SEM analysis. In my original model I had 13 latent variables. As some of these were highly correlated, I created second-order factors, of which 3 are indicated ...
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How to model an interacton between a categorical IV and a continous moderator (created through a CFA) in a SEM model using the lavaan package in R?

How can one go about modelling the interaction between a categorical independent variable and a continous moderator (created through a CFA) in a SEM model using the lavaan package in R? In particular, ...
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis identifying

I have been explained this technique in class. However, I did not understand some stuff. The professor said that a model to be estimated needs to be at least identified. Identified meaning to be when ...
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factor score formula in lavaan

I would like get the factor scores of R/lavaan, achieved by a CFA model (single factor, 4 continuous indicators), by hand. Which is the formula (equation) as function of the observed indicators. In ...
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SEM with nonnormal latent variables

From my reading of the structural equation modeling (SEM) literature, multivariate normality (MVN) is typically discussed with regards to the indicator variables (i.e., items). I am interested in ...
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How to Assess Standardized Factor Loading

I'm running a CFA in lavaan, and I understand that as a general rule of thumb, each item should have a standardized loading on the factor of <|0.3|. I've been making the mistake of reviewing the ...
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Why set factor means to 0? Monte Carlo simulation

I am using structural equation modeling (SEM). My model is a simple mediation model with latent variables (each latent variable has 3 indicators). I want to run a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate if ...
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CFA model interpretation

I received the following CFA model output. I wonder if anyone can help me understand how to interpret values on each path. For example, in factor 3, what does 1, 0.535, and p-value mean? I know that ...
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Differences in Model Fit Evaluation Between Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

For the same dataset, I tried both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For evaluating EFA model, the cumulative explanation of all latent factors adds up to ...
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CFA in lavaan won't converge

I am attempting to run a CFA in lavaan but the model will not converge unless std.lv = TRUE. This is causing me concern, and I would like some help understanding ...
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis factor loading cut off threshold

To conduct Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), what is the usual cut off threshold for items' factor loading on their factors? I have found justifications for a more conventional .40 or a more ...
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Multi-group CFA in Mplus with Missing Indicator

I am conducting SEM analysis in Mplus where I have one latent factor with four items. I am trying to conduct a multigroup analysis(3 groups) to evaluate moderation from the latent factor to an ...
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EFA and CFA with a lot of non-random "missing data"

This may be silly question, but I am only newly learning factor analysis. I am working on a project on social media. One of the problems is of the following form: We have circulated a form about ...
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Exploratory factor analysis based on separated constructs before CB-SEM?

I've seen a paper where the researcher developed a modified version of the UTAUT2 theoretical model. This modification means that 5 new constructs have been added (from the literature), so the model ...
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Factor Analysis and index creation

I am aiming to create an index and I have 4 individual variables that I want to put in one component. I would use this index as an explanatory variable in multiple regression analysis later on. ...
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Non-significant variance of latent variable when model fit is acceptable

I am running a confirmatory factor analysis with lavaan. I don't have any experiences with CFA, so I have one question regarding the output. My chi-square value is non-significant and all of the fit-...
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis : validity for a just-identified model

I have developed a 3-item questionnaire, and I would like to test the validity of this questionnaire. I wanted to test the validity using confirmatory factor analysis, but since my model is just-...
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Variable Transformations in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

I plan to implement CFA on a dataset, with 6 independent variables and 1 dependent variable. My independent variables are demographics that include 1 continuous variable (e.g., age 18 years old, 60 ...
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Can confirmatory factor analysis be used to test the components form a principal components analysis?

I have completed a PCA on a data set in study 1 (using the principal function in the psych package in R) and now I am wondering ...
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Calculating convergent and discriminant validity using R, via CFA

I've been trying to calculate convergent and discriminant validity using R, through CFA in lavaan package. I'm trying to use the ...
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lavaan factor scores to feed other models

Let's suppose I have an outcome variable that is not continuous. For example, it could be an ordered categorical variable or a nominal (unordered) categorical variable. This implies that I would need ...
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Factor Analysis on binary data (dimensionality check before IRT) [duplicate]

I'm trying to do a factorial analysis of binary data (hit / miss) related to the results of a test that consisted of two types of items. My intention is to confirm the number of dimensions to later ...
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Do I put all items together for a factor analysis?

I have 3 items measuring risk-perception and 5 items measuring willingness to comply and I want to run a Factor Analysis. Do I put all 8 items together for a factor analysis, or do I run two separate ...
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CFA: Fixing the loading of the observed variables on the error factors to one vs. fixing the variance of the error terms to one

In most (all?) structural equation modelling software the default to scaling the error variables is to fix the loadings of the observed variables on the error variables to unity and freely estimate ...
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lavaan's estimated residuals output different than manually estimated residuals

I am using lavaan and wanted to check my residuals for my model. I use lavaan's residuals() or lavResiduals() function, but I also decided to do it myself manually by computing the difference between ...
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Interpretation of FIT indices for cfa

I am running a confirmatory factor analysis on a very simple model. It is intended to confirm the structure of a brief rating scale for the evaluation of one social emotional domain. As usual, I split ...
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Valid 2nd order SEM with multiple dependent variables

I'm working on an SEM problem, and I could use some second opinions! The diagram below shows the proposed SEM model, where I have a 4 latent constructs which are estimated themselves from 2 second-...
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