Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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When to use k * (k+1)/2 (e.g. covariances and variances) vs. k * (k-1)/2 (e.g. variances only) for number of observed statistics in CFA/SEM?

Two formulas are often used for estimating the number of observed statistics in a CFA or SEM. Either: k * (k+1)/2 for the lower triangle of covariances and variances k * (k-1)/2 for the lower tiangle ...
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Is valid to conduct a CFA if p(CMIN) is significant

I conducted a CFA (confirmatory factor analysis). My values are: ...
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What is “addition unique variance” in structural equation modeling?

I am studying confirmatory factor analysis and playing around with $\Omega\text{nyx}$. In the user guide, there is the following sentence: By default, a double-headed loop is created with each ...
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26 views

Bifactor model - Factor variances

I am estimating a bifactor model, i.e., a model including a general factor (G) and 4 specific constructs/factors (S1-4), all orthogonal (see below). The fit for the model is surprisingly good (CFI/TLI ...
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If the factor has only two indicators in CFA, the errors of those two indicators cannot be correlated?

I have heard that if the factor has only two indicators in CFA, the errors of those two indicators cannot be correlated. Is it true? if so, I'm wondering if the issue is due to only identification or ...
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What does it mean to indicate correlation in lavaan CFA?

I am an undergraduate psychology student and I've been doing basic statistical analysis for professors, post-grad students, etc for their work. I use R for almost everything I've recently faced myself ...
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Q: R, SEM with lavaan, problems specifying correlations between subscales. ERROR: Warning, could not compute standard errors

I am currently working on running a SEM analysis in Lavaan and I am running into a few problems. Before running the full sem, I intended to run a CFA to replicate the psychometric testing done with ...
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can I test for invariance if the base model has poor fit in CFA?

I am doing confirmatory factor analyses on a number of datasets where I want to confirm both factor structure and measurement invariance across groups, using lavaan in R. If the base model (before ...
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How to test a difference between two regression coefficients in SEM (CFA, Lavaan)

I have a simple CFA model, where there are 4 latent factors, each including 4 manifest variables, and there are covariation among all factors. The model is estimated on ~180 individuals. ...
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Invariance for CFA in multiple groups over time with lavaan in R

Essentially, I am having trouble testing for invariance for a CFA in multiple groups over time. I am trying to do this with the lavaan package in R. I am following Little (2013) and attempting to do a ...
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Multi-group CFA analysis - two different outcomes

I have four first-order factors explained by one second-order factor. I am going to test the second-order factor across two different groups, one in Poland (group 1) and one in Spain (group 2). Also, ...
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CFA in AMOS vs. R: Different modification indices and standardized errors

I am doing a confirmatory fator analysis and I do obtain different results in SPSS AMOS vs. R/lavaan. All parameter estimates, df and standard errors are the same. Yet, standardized residuals and ...
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Bifactor-model in Mplus - warning message: PSI is not positive-definite

This question is about: When does the warning massage appear? I have a rather complicated model in Mplus that consists of three individual models. Each model consists of several manifest variables ...
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Defining single indicators for CFA and covariance in Lavaan (R)

I am struggling with performing my very first confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model and I am already stuck. For reference, I am using the Lavaan package in R. I am ...
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Correlation Analysis on a MICE Dataset

This question is similar to one that was asked almost 10 years ago but never got answered. I want to perform a CFA on a data set mainly consisting of categorical data. It also contains around 2-3 ...
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Exhaustive reading of Factor Analysis [duplicate]

I have learned EFA and CFA in SPSS/ AMOS and a basic understanding of why they work (but in a non-mathematical way, which makes me feel I might have some fundamental misconceptions, and hence this ...
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In confirmatory factor analysis, what is the notation for the modification index?

What symbol or abbreviation can we use to refer to the modification index? Say you were writing an article about a CFA that was performed and inside of the article you want to list several ...
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Could not compute standard errors in lavaan but why?

I am estimating a two-factor model in lavaan via sem(). I try and estimate this model in two different ways that should be equivalent (unless I am missing something) but one way gives an error ...
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1answer
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Best practice for establishing configural invariance?

I was hoping for some perspectives on the best practices for establishing configural invariance using ordered indicators with WLSMV estimation. I have a 3-factor scale and I am assessing invariance ...
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26 views

What is the best approach to examine the dimensionality of related behaviours and to develop theory?

I’m preparing a study whose main goal it is to explore whether a set of related behaviours are best conceptualized as one-dimensional or two-dimensional. Traditionally, such questions have been ...
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DWLS applicable for 7-Likert scale CFA?

I am writing my undergrad business thesis and I am new to CFA. I did a CFA for 7-Likert Scale Data (Sample Size 210, 8 Factors, 36items) which resulted in poor model fit with the classic MLR estimator ...
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1answer
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Structural equation modeling for habitat suitability

I am new to the concept of SEM. Yet, after reading about SEM it seems quite promising to give me a better understanding about how influential/important a set of measured variables (in respect to each ...
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Interpreting Omega coefficients (reliability) from EFA and CFA

I have a dataset with 5 variables and I would like to estimate the reliability of the scale score computed as the linear combination of all items (n = number of items), that is $O = \sum_{i=1}^{n}(X_i)...
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CFA, 1 latent variable, 3 observed, saturated, how to continue?

For a survey on work satisfaction and health containing multiple constructs (for stress, intrinsic motivation, anxiety, quality of life), I need to confirm the unidimensionality of each construct. ...
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1answer
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SEM Instead of MANOVA

I do not have sufficient reputation to comment on a question, so I hope this post is acceptable. Regarding the accepted answer to this question: How to do Simple Confirmatory Factory Analysis/SEM in R?...
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How to interpret standardized coefficients for latent variable in CFA?

I am fitting a CFA model with the following syntax from lavaan package: ...
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If I have a second order model that runs great, do I need to run first order model to evaluated if I can use the small constructs?

I have already posted this question on https://groups.google.com/g/lavaan/c/CZAyEDBNUwk . However, as this is more theoretical, I think that more people will be happy to help here. I have a survey ...
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Lavaan CFA with lots of cross-loadings solution not found

I am having some trouble getting my CFA to converge. There are lots of cross loadings and one factor with two indicators, both of which I think may be contributing to the error. Here is a reproducible ...
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What are the solutions for small sample in SEM?

is bootstrap a solution? I use Lisrel 8.8 (the student version) and bootstrap actually does not work in it. Bootstrap S has N/A values.
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How to calculate convergent and discriminant validity in SEM?

Using the average variance extract (AVE), the method is explained easily by doing some calculations on the factor loadings. I only found such procedure on CFA models, where we don't have an endogenous ...
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Comparing the means of latent variables in a CFA model measured at two different times in R

I have a CFA model with 7 latent variables and about 4 items per construct, I'm using R with lavaan for the CFA, $N\approx 3500$. My model looks like this: ...
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34 views

Unrefined scores for confirmatory factor analysis

I have read the paper entitled "Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher" by C. Distefano, M. Zhu, Diana Mîndrilă (2009), Practical Assessment, ...
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How to find degree of freedom in SEM-CFA model? [Inquiring Clarification]

I found a link that explains it. http://reifman-sem.blogspot.com/2007/04/some-of-students-wanted-review-of.html It is $$Degree \;of\;Freedom (DF) = Total \;Elements - Total \;Free \;Parameters$$ [...
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How to interpret the negative variances

I had used the already published Likert scale for the survey. And the responses to the survey from 98 participants were collected. The survey likert scale was from <...
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Evaluating discriminant validity of a 2nd order reflective construct?

I am currently assessing my measurement model which includes-besides other constructs-a 2nd order reflective construct (consists of four 1st order constructs that are also reflective). I noticed that ...
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1answer
39 views

Standard errors and p-values in exploratory factor analysis

I was wondering why there are no standard errors and p-values reported for the factor loadings in the exploratory factor analysis, instead the magnitude of the factor loadings are used to judge the ...
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Can you do confirmatory factor analysis on items with different response scale

Can one do a confirmatory factor analysis with items on different response scales. let's say 50 items have a likert response scale from 1 to 4, and the second group of items have a likert response ...
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How to calculate confirmatory factor analysis by hand?

I am trying to learn how confirmatory factor analysis works and the way I learn is best by understanding how the calculations work by hand using a pen, paper, and a calculator, and then replicate this ...
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1answer
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Factor loading calculated by factor_analyzer smaller than -1

I used factor_analyzer Python package for CFA, but matrix of factor loadings that I got contains value smaller than -1. Is a bug in the package, or maybe I ...
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147 views

CFA: should I remove highly correlated items?

I want to Run CFA model (N=400), but I have a question about the correlation between items. I know I should have high correlation between items that make up one factor (cor>.3). I have two factors ...
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35 views

SEM: Difference between standardized and non-standardized p-values?

I'm currently working on regressions of one latent factor on another latent factor with ``lavaan'`. More specifically, I want to examine if depression predicts procrastination behavior. However, I did ...
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46 views

What steps in data cleaning process I need to do before the CFA?

I wonder if you can help me find any sources of literature that describes what steps needs to be done to clean up the data before CFA? I have done the following steps: convert Likert type scale to ...
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Longitudinal CFA How to build configural model?

I have 12 survey questions (Qs) that were asked during pre- and post-term survey. So I want to do the longitudinal CFA to see whether there was a difference between factor models for pre/post-term ...
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1answer
23 views

In Structural Equation Modelling, what is the difference between Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis?

I am trying to understand the difference between Exploratory and Confirmatory Factory Analysis. I have usually only done CFAs because I would test existing models. Though I know EFA usually precedes ...
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140 views

Difference between CFA using WLSMV estimator and IRT

I am trying to understand the differences (or similarities) between conducting CFA on categorical data using the WLSMV estimator in SEM and item response theory analysis. I would appreciate any input. ...
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209 views

Multilevel SEM with three or more levels in OpenMx

I am trying to figure out how to conduct analyses using CFA and SEM models with three or more levels. Pritikin et al. (2017) investigates how to conduct a three-level and up to five-level SEM using ...
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How should low factor loadings affect interpretation of the factor's correlation with another variable?

In a research project I am working on for university, I used 18 items to measure 4 variables. This measurement instrument has been validated in previous literature. I ran a factor analysis with 4 ...
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CFA Model Saturated, fit perfect

I am running a CFA with three items and one latent factor. My sample size is 900. Each item loads onto the factor between .64 and .89. Why is it saying fit is perfect? I have tried in both STATA and ...
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73 views

Dealing with reversed items that are causing poor CFA fit model: residuals-related problem

I am running a CFA model (N=500) with a total of 5 factors: 3 of them include reverse items. I first run a reliability test psych::alpha(df_cronbach) which showed ...
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74 views

Controlling variance manually for a latent factor w/ only one manifest indicator using lavaan in R

Using lavaan in R, I'm trying to reproduce a CFA/SEM model from a publication (cf. Figure 1 of https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/desc.12202). Below is the correlation table and std. dev....

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