Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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Identification of Bayesian models

In frequentist estimation, a large degree of emphasis in SEM/CFA modeling is placed on whether the model is identified, that is, whether each parameter can be uniquely estimated from the data. The ...
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122 views

How do I specify a lavaan sem model with more than one single-indicator factor?

I am trying to specify a lavaan CFA that has some factors with three or more indicators, one factor with two indicators, and two factors with one indicator. For the single indicator factors, I tried ...
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7 views

Is it possible to use Partial Least Squares-SEM with only one latent variable

I want to compute a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling. I have only one latent variable and 10 manifest variables....
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13 views

AVE and CR in JASP?

I'm new to the software JASP and need some help. Is it possible to calculate average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR) in JASP? I need them in order to test validity and ...
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2answers
132 views

Can latent variables have residuals?

I'm conducting a bi-factor confirmatory factor analysis using Mplus. The model modification indices suggest the model should correlate the residuals of latent variables. Somehow, I feel only observed ...
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28 views

Correlated factors in cfa

I am a running a confirmatory factor analysis in r using the package lavaan. I am trying to measure a latent variable (e.g. time spent in exercise) in young adults and have 2 subjective measures and 3 ...
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1answer
24 views

Confirmatory factor analysis

I'm currently validating a french translation of a psychological questionnaire. The original version is subdivided into two subscales. The 27 questions were answered on a Lickert scale (from 1 to 7). ...
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1answer
48 views

Lavaan in R : some estimated lv variances are negative (higher order model)

I'm trying to fit a higher order model with five correlated secondary order factors and 14 primary order factors, but I receive following warning in R using cfa() ...
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23 views

Comparing two CFA models in AMOS (only 4 items per 1-2 factors)

I am trying to test in AMOS the discriminant validity of a 3-item measure (items "1, 2 and 3" against a 1-item measure "item Z" (both are Likert scale questionnaire instruments), by comparing whether ...
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6 views

Difference in analysis between latent and observed variables in Mplus

I would like to ask what is the difference between the analysis being run on latent and observed variables in a full SEM being run in Mplus. I've been recommended to change the factors within the CFA ...
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1answer
189 views

Using z-scores for ML estimation in AMOS?

I'm running a series of congeneric models with neuropsychological performance data obtained using different scales (e.g., time, errors etc). These will later be used in an SEM. A weighted factor score ...
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2answers
26 views

Can you do CFA with non-survey data?

I have a dataset with countries as observations and 33 country-level continuous variables. The information accompanying the dataset groups the 33 variables into 6 different 'categories', however I am ...
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18 views

Are these latent variables too highly correlated in this Structural Equation Model?

this is my first SEM I've done so I'm still getting my head around many of the concepts. So I think I've created a hierarchical model of IQ (generaliq), with the latent variables: verbal_letter, ...
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22 views

CFA markers and latent variable's variance [closed]

In Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) we set a marker (regression weight = 1) to a randomly or not randomly chosen observed variable. I was wondering under which conditions or in which situation you ...
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150 views

Non-significant result in CFA model

I've fitted a one-factor model to data originating from a unidimensional 8-item scale; sample size is 400. Because the scale uses a Likert response format, and data does not follow a multivariate ...
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25 views

Obtain standardized factor scores for latent variables after CFA - Lavaan package in R

I want to predict the factor scores of latent variables from CFA, and use them as independent variables in another model (not SEM). Because the latent variables don't have a measurement unit, I want ...
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1answer
196 views

How can Factor Analysis be used to remove questions from a survey?

Suppose I have a psychological questionnaire asking 30 questions about a person's mental health (on a Likert-scale 1-7). These 30 questions fall into 7 separate, but correlated categories. The ...
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1answer
2k views

Doing CFA on a known theoretical model, but having problems with convergent and discriminant validity

I did a survey based on the UTAUT model / theory with standard questions used. The N was 150. I am trying to validate the model for my survey with structural equation modeling (via the AMOS software). ...
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1answer
10 views

How to calculate composite score with a 2-factor scale

Suppose I have a scale with four items meant to measure, say, happiness. I ran a confirmatory factor analysis and the model fits well with two factors and let's say that the two factors are 1) ...
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1answer
187 views

Confirmatory Factor Analysis Poor Fit - next steps

I'm a beginner when it comes to CFA (in AMOS) and was wondering if anyone could advise me. I've questionnaire data from two separate samples and I want to confirm the factor structure. I've run an ...
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25 views

What does it mean if EFA shows worse fit than conceptual CFA?

I'm in the middle of developing a psychometric scale and running a few factor analyses here and there. I already have a theory in mind and the scale was developed with 4 factors. I ran a confirmatory ...
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1answer
206 views

fit indices for cfa based on 2 groups/samples?

I have a question regarding fit indices for a cfa based on 2 groups/samples. Specifically, I have fitted a cfa model with one factor based on 7 indicators (questionnaire items), and two samples (...
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1answer
158 views

Evaluating measurement invariance with lavaan and ordered data

I am running a measurement invariance in lavaan in R. I am comparing a measure of sociocultural appearance pressures across White and Black women. Because this is a 5-point scale, I am treating the ...
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1answer
535 views

Question about model fit indices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

I added data (33 observed variables, 8 latent variables, all are Likert scales) and ran CFA. Sample size is 618 respondents. A result was many fit indices (Chi-squre/DF, CFI, GFI, AGFI, NFI, NNFI, ...
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1answer
255 views

Creating a composite indicator using pca, cfa or addition

I need some advice to decide which aggregation method is better in my case. I want to create an aggregated variable which is a composite of 16 variables. All 16 variables are part of one big concept, ...
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1answer
136 views

CFA: Factor with zero variance

I have a CFA that has estimated one factor to have zero variance. (I fixed one loading to 1 for all factors & left variance free). I don't see how this could be possible, and would appreciate some ...
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61 views

How to interpret output of measurement invariance analysis

I try to test the measure invariance of a scale (with a 1-factor-structure) across two groups (N_1 = 645; N_2 = 127) and have problems with the application as well as the interpretation. I'm sure they'...
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16 views

Best choice of estimators in a CFA analysis without full dataset?

My team and I are working on an assignment that provided: A model to be tested, consisting of 2 Factors explaining 6 variables; $F1$ would be explained by $X1, X2$ and $X3$, while $F2$ would be ...
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1answer
25 views

Normality test without knowing a sample's mean

I've been searching for a way to approach my problem. This is a scenario from a Multivariate Statistics Assignment on Confirmatory Factor Analysis. We've been given only a correlation matrix on 6 ...
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2answers
132 views

Book on structural equation modelling/ confirmatory factor analysis

Is there any "state of the art" book on SEM/CFA that you can recommend? I am looking for something that offers both some theory and some practice and I am using R with lavaan. I am a psychologist ...
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451 views

random walk and covariance stationary

I was preparing for CFA and encountered this question, which is quite puzzling. To use autoregressive model, it has to be covariance stationary (same mean, covariance). If a model's residual is not ...
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9 views

Multiple factor analysis: Getting more number of factors than the number of dimensions/ features

I am trying to apply multiple factor analysis on a survey data, which has all sorts of features - numerical, categorical and ordinal. In total, there are 109 features. Now, when I did multiple factor ...
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3answers
373 views

lavaan WLSMV estimator: are results reliable when number of observations is too small to compute Gamma?

I run CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) with WLSMV estimator (since my data are ordinal) in lavaan and I get the following warning message: ...
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1answer
411 views

SEM or CFA for two level structure

I have 20 observed factors and I want to check their validaty as a scale of 4 latent variables. For this purpose I should use the cfa function. Right? Then I want also to check a second order model. ...
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1answer
14 views

What are the most common optimization algorithms for confirmatory factor analysis?

For confirmatory factor analysis, as I understand it, we have the following set up: Source: Sacha Epskamp’s lecture notes I then read that some authors have tried the following approaches Source: ...
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1answer
146 views

bifactor model: factor loadings exceed 1

I calcuted a CFA in R lavaan with an "MLM" estimator as data follows a non-normal multivariate distribution, all items are scaled on a six point scale. fit_E <- lavaan::cfa(E_model, data = x, std....
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11 views

Partial least square

In the context of confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, & predictor space dimension reduction. PLS is a supervised dimension reduction procedure, since it summarize the ...
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52 views

Minimum value for Squared multiple correlations between items and factors

When building a CFA model, each of item that form a latent variable has its own squared multiple correlation coefficient or reability. Is there a minimum value for squared multiple correlations (R^2)? ...
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1k views

Comparing CFA models (AIC)

I wonder whether I can use AIC for model comparison in this scenario: Model 1: A = a + b + c B = d + e + f C = g + h + i Model 2: A = a + b + c B = d + e + f (The third factor with his ...
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1answer
39 views

CFA: scaling of measured variables/indicators

I'm running a latent variable analysis with: 166 observations 21 continuous variables using the R package lavaan A simple run of ...
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1answer
39 views

Measurement invariance using 3 items

I want to examine measurement invariance across two nationalities for a construct measured with 3 items. First one is supposed to examine the configural fit before examining more restrictive models. ...
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1answer
29 views

Reverse coding items: missing data + factor analysis

I have a data set which includes a number of variables which need to be reverse coded. I have already completed my missing data analysis, however did not reverse code the items prior to replacing the ...
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15 views

Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Analysis

I am seeking to apply these methods to psychological questionnaire data. I have read up on the basics but I am curious - and this is not limited to just ECA/CFA, but what is the best method to look up ...
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1answer
49 views

Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models? [closed]

Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models? If yes, how are they nested? Are EFA and/or ESEM models and more restrictive CFA models on the same data ...
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20 views

Calculating a single Factor value against a table of variables

Ok here's a fun one... We have to calculate a given referee's strength rating/appropriateness for refereeing a given game. The number we come up with has to be something meaningful, so it should be ...
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6 views

Multigroup Factor Analysis - Scale Validation

I have a questionnaire which comprises of several factors or constructs. I gave the question to two groups and have received my answers back I wanted to use MGFA to determine if my questionnaire was ...
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2answers
708 views

Factor analysis with categorical responses and missing data

I factor analyzing a measure with 55 categorical items (3 categories each). I am use CFA to test a 7 factor model. I have a very large sample (>10,000), but approximately 20% of the sample is missing ...
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1answer
45 views

Do I estimate factor loadings in a confirmatory factor anlysis (CFA) aimed at verifying an exploratory factor analysis (EFA)?

I decided to use a questionnaire published by another researcher (paper and supplementary here). In the article they perform an EFA, find two factors, and report the resulting factor loadings (...
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35 views

Does a poorly fitting CFA preclude SEM?

Trying to help someone with a Masters dissertation. I've run CFA in Jamovi on her questionnaire responses based on the assumed item/factor relationships. I don't really understand the various ...
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478 views

How does oblimin rotation method affect confirmatory factor analysis in lavaan?

I am conducting a CFA on a questionnaire with 4 factors. I know that the exploratory factor analysis to obtain theses 4 factors was done using oblimin rotation. I am now wondering, if this affects the ...

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