Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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Family members in factor analysis

I'm carrying out an exploratory PCA, followed by an CFA, to test for dimensionality of a questionnaire. I am wondering about the effect of having family members in the same sample. I have a final ...
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How can I model non-normal latent factors in a factor analysis or SEM?

We are running a confirmatory factor analysis (covariance-based SEM form) with three latent variables for around 900 companies. The input is around 20 variables: 5-6 are perfectly normally distributed ...
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SEM/MIMIC Model Using Covariates

I'm currently struggling with structural equation modeling. I have a model with three factors and would like to explore the impact of subject's sex and age on them. How should I do it and – more ...
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Is it wrong to discover the factors using EFA and then do CFA for compartive purpose on the same data set?

I have initially done EFA to extract the factors then conducted CFA to confirm those factors and secondly for the comparative purpose. Example factors that were extracted through EFA were further used ...
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R: Reliability in higher order models

when modeling the big five using a higher-order model with factors on the second order and facets on the first, how can I calculate reliability with McDonald's ω in R? Is it even necessary? ...
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Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R

In this data set, there are 10 participants. There were 5 conditions and participants were exposed to each condition. After experiencing each condition they then answered 5 questions. They answered ...
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Why can exploratory factor analysis (EFA) suggest a single factor, yet a 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model not fit?

I know I previously saw a thread on this topic, but I cannot locate it. So, please forgive my redundancy. I have an 8-item questionnaire administered to a (small) sample of 59 patients. The data ...
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Is it possible to use Partial Least Squares-SEM with only one latent variable

I want to compute a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling. I have only one latent variable and 10 manifest variables....
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AVE and CR in JASP?

I'm new to the software JASP and need some help. Is it possible to calculate average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR) in JASP? I need them in order to test validity and ...
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Correlated factors in cfa

I am a running a confirmatory factor analysis in r using the package lavaan. I am trying to measure a latent variable (e.g. time spent in exercise) in young adults and have 2 subjective measures and 3 ...
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Confirmatory factor analysis

I'm currently validating a french translation of a psychological questionnaire. The original version is subdivided into two subscales. The 27 questions were answered on a Lickert scale (from 1 to 7). ...
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Lavaan in R : some estimated lv variances are negative (higher order model)

I'm trying to fit a higher order model with five correlated secondary order factors and 14 primary order factors, but I receive following warning in R using cfa() ...
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Difference in analysis between latent and observed variables in Mplus

I would like to ask what is the difference between the analysis being run on latent and observed variables in a full SEM being run in Mplus. I've been recommended to change the factors within the CFA ...
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Comparing two CFA models in AMOS (only 4 items per 1-2 factors)

I am trying to test in AMOS the discriminant validity of a 3-item measure (items "1, 2 and 3" against a 1-item measure "item Z" (both are Likert scale questionnaire instruments), by comparing whether ...
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Can you do CFA with non-survey data?

I have a dataset with countries as observations and 33 country-level continuous variables. The information accompanying the dataset groups the 33 variables into 6 different 'categories', however I am ...
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Are these latent variables too highly correlated in this Structural Equation Model?

this is my first SEM I've done so I'm still getting my head around many of the concepts. So I think I've created a hierarchical model of IQ (generaliq), with the latent variables: verbal_letter, ...
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CFA markers and latent variable's variance [closed]

In Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) we set a marker (regression weight = 1) to a randomly or not randomly chosen observed variable. I was wondering under which conditions or in which situation you ...
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Non-significant result in CFA model

I've fitted a one-factor model to data originating from a unidimensional 8-item scale; sample size is 400. Because the scale uses a Likert response format, and data does not follow a multivariate ...
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Obtain standardized factor scores for latent variables after CFA - Lavaan package in R

I want to predict the factor scores of latent variables from CFA, and use them as independent variables in another model (not SEM). Because the latent variables don't have a measurement unit, I want ...
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How to calculate composite score with a 2-factor scale

Suppose I have a scale with four items meant to measure, say, happiness. I ran a confirmatory factor analysis and the model fits well with two factors and let's say that the two factors are 1) ...
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What does it mean if EFA shows worse fit than conceptual CFA?

I'm in the middle of developing a psychometric scale and running a few factor analyses here and there. I already have a theory in mind and the scale was developed with 4 factors. I ran a confirmatory ...
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How to interpret output of measurement invariance analysis

I try to test the measure invariance of a scale (with a 1-factor-structure) across two groups (N_1 = 645; N_2 = 127) and have problems with the application as well as the interpretation. I'm sure they'...
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Best choice of estimators in a CFA analysis without full dataset?

My team and I are working on an assignment that provided: A model to be tested, consisting of 2 Factors explaining 6 variables; $F1$ would be explained by $X1, X2$ and $X3$, while $F2$ would be ...
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Normality test without knowing a sample's mean

I've been searching for a way to approach my problem. This is a scenario from a Multivariate Statistics Assignment on Confirmatory Factor Analysis. We've been given only a correlation matrix on 6 ...
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Multiple factor analysis: Getting more number of factors than the number of dimensions/ features

I am trying to apply multiple factor analysis on a survey data, which has all sorts of features - numerical, categorical and ordinal. In total, there are 109 features. Now, when I did multiple factor ...
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Partial least square

In the context of confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, & predictor space dimension reduction. PLS is a supervised dimension reduction procedure, since it summarize the ...
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Minimum value for Squared multiple correlations between items and factors

When building a CFA model, each of item that form a latent variable has its own squared multiple correlation coefficient or reability. Is there a minimum value for squared multiple correlations (R^2)? ...
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Reverse coding items: missing data + factor analysis

I have a data set which includes a number of variables which need to be reverse coded. I have already completed my missing data analysis, however did not reverse code the items prior to replacing the ...
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44 views

Measurement invariance using 3 items

I want to examine measurement invariance across two nationalities for a construct measured with 3 items. First one is supposed to examine the configural fit before examining more restrictive models. ...
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44 views

CFA: scaling of measured variables/indicators

I'm running a latent variable analysis with: 166 observations 21 continuous variables using the R package lavaan A simple run of ...
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Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Analysis

I am seeking to apply these methods to psychological questionnaire data. I have read up on the basics but I am curious - and this is not limited to just ECA/CFA, but what is the best method to look up ...
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Calculating a single Factor value against a table of variables

Ok here's a fun one... We have to calculate a given referee's strength rating/appropriateness for refereeing a given game. The number we come up with has to be something meaningful, so it should be ...
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Multigroup Factor Analysis - Scale Validation

I have a questionnaire which comprises of several factors or constructs. I gave the question to two groups and have received my answers back I wanted to use MGFA to determine if my questionnaire was ...
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Do I estimate factor loadings in a confirmatory factor anlysis (CFA) aimed at verifying an exploratory factor analysis (EFA)?

I decided to use a questionnaire published by another researcher (paper and supplementary here). In the article they perform an EFA, find two factors, and report the resulting factor loadings (...
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Does a poorly fitting CFA preclude SEM?

Trying to help someone with a Masters dissertation. I've run CFA in Jamovi on her questionnaire responses based on the assumed item/factor relationships. I don't really understand the various ...
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SEM: Comparing models when removing paths

I'm developing an SEM model for a study I've recently run. Essentially, I have 6 factors that are shown from previous research to predict one's performance in a specific task. My data is the ...
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What are the most common optimization algorithms for confirmatory factor analysis?

For confirmatory factor analysis, as I understand it, we have the following set up: Source: Sacha Epskamp’s lecture notes I then read that some authors have tried the following approaches Source: ...
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Collapsed Categories - Interval or Ordinal Scale

Is it appropriate to treat the following indicator as having an interval scale: "In the last two weeks, how many times have you been late for school: 1. Never (62% of respondents) 2. Once or twice (15%...
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Is there a Latent Class Analysis analog for Confirmatory Factor Analysis?

I am looking to do modeling similar to Confirmatory Factor Analysis with path diagrams, correlations, etc. but all my variables are categorical. I read that, when dealing with continuous variables, it ...
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453 views

lavaan WLSMV estimator: are results reliable when number of observations is too small to compute Gamma?

I run CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) with WLSMV estimator (since my data are ordinal) in lavaan and I get the following warning message: ...
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Should a factor analysis (for construct validity) be performed in a section of a test that is meant to measure knowledge in a specific subject?

As a part of a study, a survey to measure the impact of an environmental education project is being developed, and to do so, factor analysis and principal component analysis are being performed for ...
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factor scores from CFA in lavaan

I have the covariance matrix and an already fitted lavaan object (and/or model) using the cov matrix. But, I do not have the raw data. Is there a way I can calculate the factor scores?
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Resampling or simulating orginal data to assess validity of experimental measure

I would like to conduct combination of EFA and CFA to assess if the measure I've designed to evaluate results of an experiment fits into proposed theoretical model or not. My theoretical model ...
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28 views

How to estimate a measurement model (CFA) with both latent and observed variables affecting measurements in lavaan?

I'd like to estimate a CFA model where measures are determined by both latent variables and other observed variables. I can do this by creating place-holding latent variables for the observed ...
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226 views

How can Factor Analysis be used to remove questions from a survey?

Suppose I have a psychological questionnaire asking 30 questions about a person's mental health (on a Likert-scale 1-7). These 30 questions fall into 7 separate, but correlated categories. The ...
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Is there a point to using EFA for scale validation when you can always fit a second-order CFA?

I have been trying to understand the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis for the purpose of scale validation. Say you have developed a scale to measure construct X, which is supposed to be one unified ...
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78 views

how can I perform confirmatory factor analysis when covariance matrix contains missing values?

I have dataset of test items which were administered in blocks. As a result, not all students answered each test item and there are some pairs of items for which no observations are shared, ...
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301 views

In CFA, does it matter which factor loading is set to 1?

I'd been previously taught that, aside from the fact that fixing a loading to 1 means you won't get a significance test on that loading, it was totally arbitrary which loading got fixed to 1. However,...
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Do I report the pvalue of the standardized or unstandardized factor loading in CFA/SEM?

Using lavaan, for a simple CFA or SEM with measurement tools, you can use parameterEstimates(fit, standardized=TRUE) to get the standardized factor loadings for the ...
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$H_0$ and $H_1$ of $\chi^2$ test in confirmatory factor analysis

I am struggling to find a good text on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (an old thread on the topic has little to offer) and so have some basic questions on CFA. What exactly are the null and the ...

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