Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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289 views

Whether to use EFA or CFA to predict latent variables scores?

I have a dataframe of individual observations, that I partitioned to create a training (0.7 prop) and a test set (0.3 prop). I started by running an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the training ...
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664 views

Structural Equation Modeling Two-Step Method

I have a question regarding the two-step method for performing a structural equation modeling problem. The two-step method indicates that you should 1) First construct the Measurement Model to ...
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1answer
198 views

How can Factor Analysis be used to remove questions from a survey?

Suppose I have a psychological questionnaire asking 30 questions about a person's mental health (on a Likert-scale 1-7). These 30 questions fall into 7 separate, but correlated categories. The ...
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311 views

EFA / SEM: Next steps after bad fit of measurement models

i want to check factorial and predictive validity of a 24 item questionnaire. For the factorial validity i calculated Measurement Models. Subsequently i wanted to calculate SEMs for predicitve ...
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33 views

Can I try several CFAs on the same data before choosing one for generating factor scores?

I'm interested in matching on latent constructs (see Raykov, 2012), and one way to do so is to match on factor scores generated by CFAs of the items (One could also match on the items themselves, but ...
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467 views

Does the use of EFA factor scores (vs. sum/average scores) impact statistical power of subsequent analyses?

Imagine a hypothetical scenario: You have data a short survey of 9 questions that participants respond to on a continuous rating scale. You suspect that Questions 1-3 assess one particular factor (...
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207 views

Comparing confirmatory factor analysis models with different number of observed variables

I have a 14 item scale that is hypothesized to measure self-esteem. The first model I specify uses all 14 items and predicts one latent factor (i.e., self-esteem). I would then like to specify a ...
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811 views

Outliers causing Heywood case in CFA using MLM estimator in lavaan

I am trying to perform a CFA on data (10 indicators: $n=300$) that is severely non-normal but continuous (counts of a clinical behavior over a period of weeks): many cases are at zero, a fair few ...
3
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173 views

Should I run measurement invariance if confirmatory factor analysis is not affirmative?

I have a repeated measures design for a Likert scale with 10 items. This scale is assumed to be unidimensional and this is one of the research questions along with the scales measurement invariance (...
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1answer
48 views

Lavaan in R : some estimated lv variances are negative (higher order model)

I'm trying to fit a higher order model with five correlated secondary order factors and 14 primary order factors, but I receive following warning in R using cfa() ...
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18 views

$H_0$ and $H_1$ of $\chi^2$ test in confirmatory factor analysis

I am struggling to find a good text on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (an old thread on the topic has little to offer) and so have some basic questions on CFA. What exactly are the null and the ...
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182 views

How to compare non-nested models (with different number of items) in CFA?

I investigate the factor structur of an existing scale in a data set with N = 714 (using lavaan, R). In this context I would like to compare to alternative models: Model 1: Two factors with 5 items ...
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1answer
206 views

fit indices for cfa based on 2 groups/samples?

I have a question regarding fit indices for a cfa based on 2 groups/samples. Specifically, I have fitted a cfa model with one factor based on 7 indicators (questionnaire items), and two samples (...
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1k views

Are CFA Assumptions the same as EFA assumptions

I am learning currently CFA after completing EFA using Andy Fields book and Using Multi-variate statistics by Barbara Tabachnick and Linda Fidell. In EFA the assumptions of the test are mentioned as ...
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245 views

partial scalar measurement invariance

I have performed a measurement invariance analysis in R using SemTools, to assess the five factor structure of a questionnaire across 3 age groups. The latent variables have 5 indicators (5 items). I ...
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517 views

Can I calculate average factor loadings from Cronbach's alpha?

I was wondering if I could post hoc calculate the Fornell-Larcker criterion to assess discricimant validity given the correlation matrix between several subscales and Cronbach's $\alpha$ for each ...
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2k views

In CFA, when is ML estimation preferable and when is GLS preferable?

To a lesser extent I am also interested in when one should use Unweighted Least Squares (ULS), and other less common methods. I have been taught Maximum Likelihood (ML) as a default but have just ...
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25 views

Obtain standardized factor scores for latent variables after CFA - Lavaan package in R

I want to predict the factor scores of latent variables from CFA, and use them as independent variables in another model (not SEM). Because the latent variables don't have a measurement unit, I want ...
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1answer
39 views

CFA: scaling of measured variables/indicators

I'm running a latent variable analysis with: 166 observations 21 continuous variables using the R package lavaan A simple run of ...
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77 views

Do I report the pvalue of the standardized or unstandardized factor loading in CFA/SEM?

Using lavaan, for a simple CFA or SEM with measurement tools, you can use parameterEstimates(fit, standardized=TRUE) to get the standardized factor loadings for the ...
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63 views

How to Determine Appropriate Values for Correlated Uniqueness in SEM Simulation?

I am trying to run a simulation of power/bias for a particular SEM, in which a number of correlated uniquenesses will need to be specified. I know how to determine the appropriate values of the ...
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85 views

How to control/correct for response bias in survey or questionnaire data for Factor Analysis

I would like to apply Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to a Likert-type questionnaire data. It is supposed that this data is affected by response bias: some patients either overestimated or ...
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250 views

Confirmatory factor analysis: using ML vs MLM estimator

I have a relatively small dataset (n < 130) based on a questionnaire set up with 5-point likert type scale. Each respondent has filled out the questionnaire at 4 time points, i.e. a longitudinal (...
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1answer
136 views

CFA: Factor with zero variance

I have a CFA that has estimated one factor to have zero variance. (I fixed one loading to 1 for all factors & left variance free). I don't see how this could be possible, and would appreciate some ...
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31 views

In factor analysis, how can we address observations that are missing because the screening question was negative?

I have a fairly large sample ($n= $ 3000) of adolescents answering various questions on their psychological well-being. These questions are supposed to address various categories of psychopathology. ...
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209 views

complex survey CFA inR with lavaan.survey package and 'DWLS' estimator

I have a data set of twins, which means that my data has dependent observations. Each family is a cluster that has two observations inside (or less in some cases with missing values). I want to do a ...
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1answer
187 views

Confirmatory Factor Analysis Poor Fit - next steps

I'm a beginner when it comes to CFA (in AMOS) and was wondering if anyone could advise me. I've questionnaire data from two separate samples and I want to confirm the factor structure. I've run an ...
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1answer
53 views

Analyzing cross-cultural data utilizing likert scales

I am analyzing survey results from three different countries. Survey utilized Likert scales and consisted of 5 constructs - independent variables such as "trust" and "social influence" (each construct ...
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1answer
255 views

Creating a composite indicator using pca, cfa or addition

I need some advice to decide which aggregation method is better in my case. I want to create an aggregated variable which is a composite of 16 variables. All 16 variables are part of one big concept, ...
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0answers
242 views

Multivariate normality in Confirmatory Factor Analysis - of items or factors?

Quick question: when performing CFA with maximum likelihood estimation, does the assumption of multivariate normality apply to the items or to the latent factors? Initially I thought it applied to ...
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236 views

Are these models nested? (CFA/SEM)

The general question is: If Model 1 has a certain structure, and in Model 2 you free some of the parameters, and fix others, are the models nested? Specifically in the case I'm dealing with: One ...
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0answers
1k views

Fit indices of CFA are good looking, but chi square is significant in a medium-to-small sample

I am working with a data set which I did not collect, but a (recently death) college. The idea was to examine validity and confidence of a questionnaire. However, the sample he got is only N = 122. ...
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83 views

Factor analysis without listwise deletion

Can factor analysis be done in a manner which affords missingness on some items? With what methods can a factor analysis be performed in which subjects who are missing on one or two items are ...
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5k views

Do Heywood cases render EFA/CFA solutions invalid?

If communality = 1, then we have a Heywood case, and if a communality > 1, it is known as an ultra-Heywood case. I read in a SAS manual that an ultra-Heywood case renders a factor solution invalid, ...
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534 views

CFA power analysis using existing Likert-type data with lavaan and simsem in R

To preface, this is my first foray into CFA and SEM, so please forgive me as I am likely making a number of unwitting mistakes. I am currently working on a study to validate a proposed psychometric ...
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252 views

Will CFA produce the same loadings as an obliquely rotated EFA under these conditions?

I have in mind figures like the following, which purport to explain the difference between EFA (left) and a 'standard' CFA (right). I guess in this picture one loading per factor should be fixed, and ...
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54 views

What statistical tests to use?

My topic is on A Study of Budget Slack and the Influence of Budget Participation on Budget Slack. My research objectives are to study the relationship between budget participation, procedural fairness,...
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37 views

CFA model with systematic temporal correlation between measures

I'm looking to fit CFA models to data in the case where measures have systematic temporal correlations between them. I'm familiar with autoregressive approaches, such as those described on Dave Kenny'...
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0answers
81 views

Can the error variance for an item in CFA be > 1?

I am doing a CFA for 5 constructs, and all together having 23 items, and each construct having a minimum of 3 items each. The error variance of two items are 1.21 and 1.08. How can the error variance ...
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0answers
484 views

Impact of correlated errors in CFA

I`m doing a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on responses to a 16 item questionnaire to compare models of PTSD. At least two pairs of items display substantive error correlations (/residual ...
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0answers
147 views

What do I do when my second order CFA model is not identified?

I am assessing a measurement model of a three-factor organisational commitment scale for my PhD project. Although congeneric single factor and first order CFA models have produced excellent model fit ...
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0answers
120 views

Different results based on two target rotation approaches

I am trying to do some data analyses based on target rotation in R using two different approaches. Here is a small simulation in r. ...
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0answers
2k views

Factor analysis with binary variables using Stata 13

I am trying to do confirmatory factor analysis on data that is coded binary (0 no, 1 yes). UCLA suggests using a tetrachoric ...
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0answers
584 views

Path diagram for a second order factor model

I want to fit a second order factor model to some data. Do I need to add an error term to the endogenous factor? I'm thinking about e10, here. I omitted it at first, but AMOS was surprised about that ...
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0answers
188 views

How do item loadings in PCA / FA relate to the true factors in an instrument?

My question relates to a real research problem I am having. I am going to do EFA (well actually PCA) on a 111 item questionnaire designed to screen for 20 different disorders found in childhood and ...
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7 views

Is it possible to use Partial Least Squares-SEM with only one latent variable

I want to compute a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling. I have only one latent variable and 10 manifest variables....
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13 views

AVE and CR in JASP?

I'm new to the software JASP and need some help. Is it possible to calculate average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR) in JASP? I need them in order to test validity and ...
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0answers
29 views

Correlated factors in cfa

I am a running a confirmatory factor analysis in r using the package lavaan. I am trying to measure a latent variable (e.g. time spent in exercise) in young adults and have 2 subjective measures and 3 ...
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7 views

Difference in analysis between latent and observed variables in Mplus

I would like to ask what is the difference between the analysis being run on latent and observed variables in a full SEM being run in Mplus. I've been recommended to change the factors within the CFA ...
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23 views

Comparing two CFA models in AMOS (only 4 items per 1-2 factors)

I am trying to test in AMOS the discriminant validity of a 3-item measure (items "1, 2 and 3" against a 1-item measure "item Z" (both are Likert scale questionnaire instruments), by comparing whether ...