Questions tagged [confirmatory-factor]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is a set of multivariate techniques aimed at validating the relations between the observed variables, or indicators, and underlying latent variables, or factors, and is typically used to describe the underlying structure of psychological scales and other social science measurements.

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113 views

Acceptable CFI but poor TLI

I'm working on a path analysis using lavaan in R. Here is my model fit result: Chi square: >.05 Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI): 0.94 Tucker Lewis Index (TLI): 0.86 Root Mean Square Error of ...
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75 views

Lavaan LavPredict when samples have 0 variance

I am using Lavaan to perform a Confirmatory Factor Analysis on a dataset of 10,000 League of Legends games. The features of the dataset are certain variables of the games like kills, deaths, gold ...
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157 views

Evaluating measurement invariance with lavaan and ordered data

I am running a measurement invariance in lavaan in R. I am comparing a measure of sociocultural appearance pressures across White and Black women. Because this is a 5-point scale, I am treating the ...
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2answers
176 views

AIC and BIC come out as NA when running CFA in R

Does anyone have ideas why when running a CFA in R I'm getting most of my fit statistics to calculate, but AIC and BIC are both NA? I load lavaan, SEMplot, SEMtools, and haven; load the file (have ...
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60 views

Reasons for markedly different results using MLR vs. WLSMV in CFA?

A scale I examined has a 6-point likert scale and detailed anchor points. In addition, the items are distributed skew. I did a CFA with MLR as well as with WLSMV. With WLSMV as estimator, the scale ...
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15 views

İtem parcelling for CFA

To conduct EFA and, then CFA, I did transformation for non-normal distribution items. For CFA I want to do item parceling. in this case, should I use transformed items? Or, if I know that I will do ...
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35 views

Too many factors extracted from EFA!

I am constructing a scale. I have 80 items and 300 sample data. I ran EFA - Principal Axis Method of extraction and direct oblimin rotation in SPSS. I have 23 factors (using both Eigen value and ...
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182 views

How to compare non-nested models (with different number of items) in CFA?

I investigate the factor structur of an existing scale in a data set with N = 714 (using lavaan, R). In this context I would like to compare to alternative models: Model 1: Two factors with 5 items ...
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84 views

How to control/correct for response bias in survey or questionnaire data for Factor Analysis

I would like to apply Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to a Likert-type questionnaire data. It is supposed that this data is affected by response bias: some patients either overestimated or ...
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1answer
50 views

In scale adaptation which should be done first? CFA or Reliability Analysis

I am adapting questionnaire cross-cultural. Questinonnaire has 11 item and two factor. I want to confirm the structure 1 item's corrected item total correlation is <.20. Should this item be ...
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329 views

CFA lavaan - reasons for bad fit?

I investigate the psychometric properties of an existing scale in a data set with N = 714. The structure originally assumed by the authors is the following, from which different index scores (...
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1answer
49 views

Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models? [closed]

Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models? If yes, how are they nested? Are EFA and/or ESEM models and more restrictive CFA models on the same data ...
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206 views

CFA: examining model fit and modification indices for single factor variables before examining the full model.

I'm examining a questionnaire believed to have two-factors (7 items on each variable) from previous Exploratory Factor Analysis. Looking at it using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), the fit is ...
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1answer
28 views

Confirmatory Factor Analysis - Variance Parameters - Error Variance Estimates

I am referring to a confirmatory factor analysis output. I am curious to know how do we interpret the "Variance Parameters" Output containing the "error variance estimates" if the predictors are ...
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32 views

Running EFA and CFA on the same population at different time point

The participants filled in the questionnaires at 6-month intervals. Since the questionnaires detect changes, which I think would not affect the factor structure. (And the EFA on the 1st time point do ...
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2k views

“The model is probably unidentified” AMOS

I am doing a CFA in AMOS and I keep getting the error message: "The model is probably unidentified. In order to achieve identifiability, it will probably be necessary to impose 1 additional constraint....
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1answer
67 views

CFA Interpretation

I am trying to teach myself how to do CFA on the fly, with no formal training in statistical analysis (my first grad course on quantitative analysis is next semester). I believe that I have figured ...
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1answer
530 views

Fitting issues when including certain combination of variables with lavaan::cfa()

I am trying to fit 13 ordinal indicator variables to a single factor, but there are three of them that will result in a warning when they're included simultaneously. You can find the code below (data ...
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1answer
267 views

How to conduct confirmatory factor analysis with small sample size?

I plan to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis, wherein there are 12 observed variables and 3 latent variables. My sample size is 30. However, I read that to conduct a factor analysis, the sample ...
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20 views

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) concrete estimation example

I'm looking for a simple concrete example of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. What are the precise steps? What I (think) understand so far: Get data (random sample). Bring in a theory along the line of ...
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296 views

Extracting Factor Scores of Latent Variables after CFA in AMOS

I plan to extract the latent variables' factor scores after conducting Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). I will use these factor scores as explanatory variables for my next statistical procedure - ...
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1answer
91 views

AMOS: CFA testing invariance, but cannot name intercepts

I'm using AMOS to run a 2-factor model with 5 indicators each (10 in total). I'm assessing the invariance. So I'm assessing the invariance for sex. While the configural and metric invariance worked ...
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1answer
40 views

How to maximize regression coefficient instead of factor loadings in SEM?

I wonder if there is a method that allows finding factor loadings so that the factor would predict the distal outcome the best? The ordinary SEM model would estimate factor loadings and regression ...
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1answer
433 views

Can negative residual covariances in CFA be justified?

I'm currently running a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using 4 different measures of different aspects of cognition. (Using IBM AMOS). The model doesn't fit well unless two of the residual variances (...
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288 views

Whether to use EFA or CFA to predict latent variables scores?

I have a dataframe of individual observations, that I partitioned to create a training (0.7 prop) and a test set (0.3 prop). I started by running an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the training ...
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1answer
123 views

Correlated residuals lead to low factor loadings

I am doing CFA in lavaan (3-factor model, all factors correlated). The fit of this model is quite bad and I wanted to improve it. I realized, that the full questionnaire contains four negatively-keyed ...
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2answers
353 views

correlated residuals in a one-factor CFA model

I am conducting a CFA with 5 indicator variables. The theory suggests one or two-factor model, but with 5 indicators, only one-factor model would be viable. The question is that the one-factor model ...
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1answer
90 views

Poor model fit for confirmatory factor analysis

I am currently doing a confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS. I have 229 cases, no missing data, with a standardized questionnaire of 20 items, 4 factors. However, some indices specify that it does ...
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45 views

Obtaining individual factor loadings from a CFA in an experience sampling design

I have these intensive longitudinal data of n = 300 participants with 55 measurement occasions each. I have 12 emotion items (6 positive and 6 negative, both high and low arousal). I am interested ...
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26 views

Special case of confirmatory factor analysis

I remember that I read an article about factor analysis where they assume that each item loads on one and only one latent factor. For example, in the following factor loading matrix $$\begin{pmatrix}\...
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1answer
36 views

Reporting correct CFA figure

I am trying to understand what exactly to report in my final Confirmatory Factor Analysis figure. I plan on reporting standardised estimates with Squared multiple correlations. I am unsure what to ...
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191 views

How do I assign meaning or give names to the latent variables in exploratory factor analysis?

I read the book Latent Variable Models, and in the chapter dealing with exploratory factor analysis the author shows a way to learn latent variables (factors) from ...
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1answer
343 views

Formula for standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) in longitudinal latent variable models (SEM, CFA)

First note, related: What is the formula for Standardized Root Mean Residual (SRMR) in the context of latent variable models (e.g., SEM, CFA)? I was wondering what the adaption to the formula should ...
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1answer
185 views

Using z-scores for ML estimation in AMOS?

I'm running a series of congeneric models with neuropsychological performance data obtained using different scales (e.g., time, errors etc). These will later be used in an SEM. A weighted factor score ...
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1answer
60 views

Measurement errors in CFA standardising latent factors

I came across this magnificent post from Rose Hartman (http://www.understandingdata.net/2017/03/22/cfa-in-lavaan/#writeup) that suggests standardising latent factors (constraining them to have a mean ...
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2answers
173 views

Why are reference variables not set in exploratory factor analysis?

In relation to the following figure Kline (2016) writes on p194: The numerals (1) in Figure 9.3(b) that appear next to paths from the factors to one of their indicators are scaling constants, or ...
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1answer
360 views

Factor Analysis: magnitude of factor loadings changing over time

The context: I am doing a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a longitudinal setting (100+ individuals, 4 time points). The individuals filled out a questionnaire at 4 time points (some exceptions ...
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373 views

Factor Scores with SEM

I'm working with Stata, after SEM I calculated factor scores for each latent variable: Tech, Sleep, Training. They form together another latent variable called Result. ...
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1answer
448 views

random walk and covariance stationary

I was preparing for CFA and encountered this question, which is quite puzzling. To use autoregressive model, it has to be covariance stationary (same mean, covariance). If a model's residual is not ...
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1answer
448 views

Confirmatory factor analysis model identification

The minimum number of indicators for a single factor measurement model in CFA is 3. This follows from k(k+1)/2 where ...
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0answers
248 views

Confirmatory factor analysis: using ML vs MLM estimator

I have a relatively small dataset (n < 130) based on a questionnaire set up with 5-point likert type scale. Each respondent has filled out the questionnaire at 4 time points, i.e. a longitudinal (...
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1answer
79 views

Confirmatory factor analysis with 4 convoluted factors

I'm having some trouble with a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and my data. I use a scale of 16 items in which one item always belongs to two out of four latent factors (SE, CE, Goal, indicated by ...
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1answer
134 views

CFA: Factor with zero variance

I have a CFA that has estimated one factor to have zero variance. (I fixed one loading to 1 for all factors & left variance free). I don't see how this could be possible, and would appreciate some ...
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1answer
174 views

Formula for Standardized Estimates in SEM

In trying to interpret my output from a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, I find myself pondering the relationship between the standardized and unstandardized factor loadings. Is there a formula in terms ...
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1answer
525 views

How should I model relationships among latent variables

I'm learning statistics with SPSS. I have a test case where I need to analyze using regression linear method, I'm not sure if I can explain clearly so please refer to the picture. My understanding is ...
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1answer
145 views

bifactor model: factor loadings exceed 1

I calcuted a CFA in R lavaan with an "MLM" estimator as data follows a non-normal multivariate distribution, all items are scaled on a six point scale. fit_E <- lavaan::cfa(E_model, data = x, std....
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1answer
201 views

fit indices for cfa based on 2 groups/samples?

I have a question regarding fit indices for a cfa based on 2 groups/samples. Specifically, I have fitted a cfa model with one factor based on 7 indicators (questionnaire items), and two samples (...
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1answer
351 views

How to merge indicators/variables?

I have a problem with my data analysis (with structural equation modelling -SEM). In detail, I have 3 indicators/variables that are quite close together, the existence of all of them in the model ...
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31 views

In factor analysis, how can we address observations that are missing because the screening question was negative?

I have a fairly large sample ($n= $ 3000) of adolescents answering various questions on their psychological well-being. These questions are supposed to address various categories of psychopathology. ...
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209 views

complex survey CFA inR with lavaan.survey package and 'DWLS' estimator

I have a data set of twins, which means that my data has dependent observations. Each family is a cluster that has two observations inside (or less in some cases with missing values). I want to do a ...