# Questions tagged [continuous-data]

A random variable $X$ is called continuous if its set of possible values is uncountable, and the chance that it takes any particular value is zero ($\text{P}(X = x) = 0$ for every real number $x$). A random variable is continuous if and only if its cumulative probability distribution function is a continuous function.

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### Challenges with achieving linearity in multiple linear regression analysis

What steps can I take to correct for linearity assumptions in a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in Python on a dataset with 79 independent features, including 22 continuous, 28 nominal, ...
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### Analyses of continuous variable like time to event within clinical setting

My apologies if this has been previously answered. I am fairly new to statistics of clinical trials and I want to know how the expert statisticians handle continuous variables like "time to event&...
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### Non repeated paired observations along a continuous gradient - what to do?

Dear Cross Validators, I have a data set of the following structure (don't mind the numbers): subject_ID Position_of_the_measure Environment_condition Variable_of_interest 1 A 10.3 40 1 B 10.3 36 ...
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### Non parametric equivalent to a mixed ANOVA?

I have some data from a trial where I have two groups of patients (20 with ongoing disease and 20 without disease). Both groups have some continuous data at three time points from a subjective outcome ...
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### Can I use Kendall's correlation to determine the correlation between continuous and binary variables?

I have a dataset where the first 6 columns correspond to binary entries referring to sick/not sick and 2 additional columns with age and a specific score (dim of the dataset 60x8). I need to generate ...
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### How to determine sample size for non-normal distributed data with continuous variables?

TLDR: I need to determine the minimum sample size for measuring the energy consumption of code. Hello, I'm trying to determine how many samples (N) I need in an experiment to be confident that my ...
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### Logistic vs. linear regression for "inherently continous" variable - comparing probability

This is a situation that arises commonly in my area (medicine). Suppose there is an inherently continuous variable $y$ Suppose there is some normal range for this variable, say 80 - 120 Suppose there ...
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### Predicting outcome with ordinally, continuously or linearly related predictor variables

I am attempting to predict the number of chicks that will hatch from a group of eggs stored in a box. My predictor variable is the count of the eggs based on their size, such as "THE NUMBER OF ...
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### How to model discretised values of a continuous variable?

I have some measurements--tissue swelling in response to an injury--with limited precision (mm). Thus, although the underlying phenomenon is continuous, my values are discrete. The values range ...
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### How to find significance of Eta correlation?

I am running a test of association between a categorical/multinomial variable (example: hair color) and a continuous/nominal variable (example: ratings of happiness 0-100). I believe the correct test ...
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### RM ANOVA with a CONTINUOUS between subjects predictor

I'm conducting an experiment where I have 2 IV's on a DV. I used Repeated measures ANOVA on Jamovi to analyze my data but I have a question regarding a continuous between-subjects variable. I measured ...
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### Building a mixed-categorical-continuous probability distribution

I have a variable space that consists of some mixed categorical, integer, and real valued variables i.e $X = (x_1, ..., x_n), x_1 \in \mathbb{Z}, x_2 \in \mathbb{R}, x_n \in \{1,2\}$, and a (small) ...
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### How can I calculate growth per year when some of the size values equal zero?

I am trying to retrospectively evaluate growth of tumors over the years. I am looking at the tumor's initial presenting characteristics:size, location etc., and then following to see which of the ...
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### Do-calculus and causal inference for continuous random variables

Typical treatments of do-calculus and causal inference use discrete random variables. For example, the first rule of do-calculus in Pearl states: I'm curious about how the do-calculus and causal ...
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### ANCOVA with binary covariate

I am looking to run an ANCOVA with continuous outcome variable, looking at the effect of a categorical variable (race/ethnicity) and controlling for a binary covariate (treatment condition, values 0 ...
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### How to calculate the sample size for the development of a new clinical test?

How to calculate the appropriate sample size for the development of a new clinical test? The test would either be a quantitative test if the accuracy is good enough (i.e., test would predict a ...
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### looking for reference on sensitivity analysis of continuous outcome in causal inference

$Q:$ I knew there are methods for binary outcome variable sensitivity analysis in causal inference. However, I have not found methods for continuous outcome variable sensitivity analysis(SUTVA or ...
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### Continuous and discrete input data types for neural network

I have a dataset where the input is comprised from both continuous and discrete variables: ...
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### Analyzing/fixing non-normal continuous data using glmmTMB, Gaussian distribution, having significant deviations in residuals?

I am trying to analyze continuous data (individual mass) using a GLMM. I have deduced based on previous work and recommendations to use a Gaussian distribution. However, when I look at my residuals I ...
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### Entropy of a Continuous and Uniform Random Variable

The distribution of a uniform r.v. X is given as follows: The entropy is therefore: This means that as $∆$ approaches infinity, so does the entropy. This also means that as $∆$ approaches 0, the ...
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### Boxplots: valid method for visualizing collinearity?

I recently heard one can detect collinearity between a factor (Species) and a continuous covariate (TL) simply by making a boxplot. If the plots don't overlap, there is evidence of collinearity. I'm ...
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### Seemingly contradiction: probability density function and maximum likelihood calculations for continuous random variable

Claim 1: For continuous random variable, $P(X=x)=0$, where $x$ is a particular number. Claim 2: When we use maximum likelihood estimation, we plug-in mean, standard deviation and data point $x$ into ...
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### Determining correlation between continuous and binary (yes or no) data?

I am working with data from a survey with a sample size of 25, although not every question has 25 responses. We are looking at data from farmers. We are assuming that the data is normal, since we are ...
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### Factor analysis (or similar) for data set with both continuous and dichotomous variables (+control for age?)

As you can tell from the title I'm in a bit of a fix. I have a data set with three continuous variables and one dichotomous one. Data collected from four groups. The data set is a developmental ...
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### Tests involving three factors (continuous, continuous and ordinal) to determine correlations and means

I have a large population with three variables: a psychometric test score, continuous a class assignment percentage, continuous a self-reported measure of prior experience, ordinal with 4 degrees of ...
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### Test for Time and continuous variable

I think this is a really basic question but would appreciate some help. I have a set of data week-by-week, with a continuous variable - the numbers of times a keyword was mentioned in the media each ...
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### Are random variables mathematical functions when dealing with continuous sample spaces?

I'm struggling with some basic concepts regarding the definitions of random variables. If I'm not mistaken, random variables are functions which aim to "translate" outcomes of a sample space ...
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### Scaling the same continuous feature both in train and test

I'm building a classification model to predict some target variable. I have only one continuous feature (age) that I am interested in scaling. I split my data into train and test sets, I scale this ...
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### How to convert continuous into categorical such that class imbalance algorithms work smoothly

I was trying to use : (for addressing class imbalance in classification problems) https://imbalanced-learn.org/dev/references/generated/imblearn.combine.SMOTETomek.html#imblearn.combine.SMOTETomek....
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### Control function interact treatment with residual

I am going through an old metrics tutorial using instrumental variables regression. In one question we are supposed to estimate the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) using a control function approach. We ...
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### How to best categorize a continuous variable that has many observations with the same value?

I have an air pollution variable (PM2.5 measurements) for a dataset of 9,506 participants based on geographical location. Because many of the participants live in the same general area, there is a ...
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### How to check statistical correlation an ordinal variable against a continuous one [duplicate]

I've been trying to run some stats to check for correlation between an ordinal categories (such as body conditions classes) and a continuous variable (such as body measurements in cm). I'm really ...
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### Testing Relationships surrounding Social Media Engagement

I'm sure I have a very easy question I'm trying to answer, but as a qualitative researcher who has found themselves trying to help an undergraduate on a quantitative project, I need some help. I'm ...
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### interaction and dummy term interpretation WITH partial derivatives using inflection point

I have the following model for returns as a function of firm_profitability, sentiment, and ...
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### Comparing the additive vs separate effects of two predictors in logistic regression

Apologies if this question is a duplicate, but I couldn't find the answer to my question by looking at existing questions. I have a sample of individuals for which I have case/control status, two ...
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