Questions tagged [continuous-data]

A random variable $X$ is called continuous if its set of possible values is uncountable, and the chance that it takes any particular value is zero ($\text{P}(X = x) = 0$ for every real number $x$). A random variable is continuous if and only if its cumulative probability distribution function is a continuous function.

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13 views

Can a Gaussian Mixture model be fit with a continuous response variable?

Does the Gaussian Mixture model require binary and multiclass response/target variable (classification), or can the target vector consist of all real numbers (continuous variable, regression)? Why is ...
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29 views

Which is the optimal method to check association between continuous and binary data?

I have a data frame mod with the following information. The row names are Samples and column names are ...
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6 views

generate rules/features to identify which columns of an unknown dataset are categorical columns

I am working on the binary classification problem, in which I have to classify whether a column from a dataset is categorical or not. I am forming features for each column using rules like, 1.ratio of ...
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64 views

How to fit distributions to data in R?

I have 6 sets of Volume(v) & Duration(d) data. I have fitted a quite few distributions to the data such as Weibull, Gamma, Log-Normal, Exponential, GEV, Pareto, Log Logistic, Poisson, and GP. This ...
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26 views

What statistical analysis should we use for this aviation study?

I am helping a friend with an aviation research study. We have two categorical variables for our IV (Group 1 consists of low-cost airlines, Group 2 consist of legacy carriers), our dependent variable ...
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29 views

Relationship between ordinal and continous variables

How can I find out if there is a relationship between these two variables: x1 (ordinal) and x2 (continuous), this is a portion of my data: x1 x2 severo 0,688 severo 0,879 leve 0,75 leve 0,775 ...
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Power calculation for a one-stage, single arm trial with continuous primary outcome

An early-stage single-arm clinical trial is being planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment for a bacterial infection. The primary outcome is binary - proportion with >0.5 log10 ...
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How to deal with ties to fit data into continuous distributions in R?

I have rainfall duration and volume data. the duration is ...
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99 views

Distribution of X+U when X is a discrete and U is a continous random variable

Suppose $X$ and $U$ are independent random variables. $X$ is a discrete uniform variable and $U$ is a continuous uniform $[0,1]$ variable. What is the value of $\mathbb P(X+U\leq y)$, where $y$ is a ...
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37 views

What is the difference between discrete and continuous data?

I have two datasets: one consists of expected values and the second includes observed values. I want to test the difference between these two datasets. This is dataset A ...
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Consistent estimator of E(Var(Y|X)) for continuous random variables

Consider a set of $n$ i.i.d. observations $\{(x_i,y_i)\}_{i=1}^n$ of a pair of random variables $(X,Y)$ with finite mean and variance. I am interested in estimating the unexplained variance $\mathbb{E}...
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Tobit model for continuous zero inflated data?

I would like advice on how to apply an appropriate linear model to my data. I have several continuous independent variables, and a dependant variable with continuous distance measurements. This ...
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36 views

What model for continuous data with excess zeros?

I am relatively new to statistics and have an issue with choosing an appropriate model to describe my data. I am looking at geographical distribution of point occurrences of a species. As a measure ...
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How to compare the effect of a continuous predictor versus a binary predictor on a continuous variable?

How to compare the effect of a continuous predictor versus a binary predictor on another variable through regression? For example, we're predicting log(cd4) in the case of HIV infected patients. ...
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Can you transform the dependent continuous variable in a Logistic Regression so that Y becomes bounded between [0;1]?

I want to use a Logistic regression and my dependent variable is continuous, it is a percentage. However, the percentage is technically not bounded between [0;1]. It can take a value up to 500%. If i'...
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Determination of sample size for a Kendall's tau correlation, one variable ordinal and the other continuous

I'm a bit stuck at the moment. I have a study where we are comparing a new method of strength measurement that will give output in lbs of force versus the standard methos of grading it on a 0-5 ...
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How continuous predictors are dealt within (G)LMMs' inference procedures (such as ML and REML)?

When considering (G)LMs (with no mixed effects), handling both continuous and categorical predictors seems pretty straightforward, as ML gives us an estimation for the parameters, $\beta_i$. However, ...
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Boxplot on one one significant interaction of mixed effect model

I have a mixed effect model with two interactions statistically significant : one related to a continuous variable, the time of my experiment and one in relation to a categorical variable the day of ...
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Trouble getting hurdle model to converge for continuous zero inflated data

I'm trying to fit a generalized mixed effect model for zero inflated semi-continuous data in R using the GLMMadaptive package. I have 13 variables but even just ...
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Continuous time (hours in decimals) interacting with a categorical variable

Apologies for the stupid question, but I appreciate any comment or suggestion. I have a dataset xdata, describing the frequency of the response variable X (behaviour - continuous) for 15 individuals (...
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Ratio of Two Uniform Random Variables [duplicate]

If X1 X2 are independent Uniform variates on (0,1), Find the distribution of Z=X1/X2. I tried using the CDF method where P(X1<=zX2) is equal to z/2 when z is in(0,1). However, I am unable to find ...
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Is there an R function to predict a continuous outcome variable with 1 binary and 1 ordinal predictor variable nonparametrically?

I have a binary predictor variable (situation1, situation2) and another one that's ordinally scaled (levels in an n-back task, they're called no-back,0-back,1-back & 2-back with 2-back being the ...
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Mutual information between $X$ and $f(X)$

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two random variables, where $Y=f(X)$ is a deterministic function of $X$. Furthermore suppose $X,Y$ are continuous and that $f$ is smooth. Is the mutual information between $X$ and $...
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Visually, how strong would you rate the association between this nominal predictor variable and continuous response variable?

I've yet to find an easy-to-understand and easy-to-implement way to statistically model the strength of association between nominal data and continuous data. So I'm trying to get a rough idea visually ...
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For a simple linear regression, do we have requirements for using continuous/discrete variables on dependent and independent variables?

I am fairly new to statistics and would love to make my basics clear. I am confused about what data type should a simple/multiple regression model has? Can you please answer my question with an ...
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How can I compare the predictive power or association of two variables of different nature?

I am dealing with the following problem: We have 3 variables: A continuous variable (0 to 1), that is a scoring for people. A discrete variable, offered by a partner, in the range 1..10. That is also ...
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Probability density, Bayes and units

The variable $X$ has a continuous probability density function (for example, it may be normally distributed) with mean $a+b$ and a constant variance, say $1$. I try to find the following: $P(ab \geq ...
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53 views

Is SAT score a count variable?

It can't be continuous because you can't get a decimal SAT score, right?
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71 views

How to distinguish the continuous and categorical variable based on the number of unique values?

I have a very large dataset contained 600,000 rows and 400 columns. Most of the variables are anonymous and named as Vi, i=1,2,...,400, and all of them are either int or float. When I am dealing with ...
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72 views

Identifying non-linearities in relationship between variables

Logistic regression is often used to identify the effect of $x$ on a binary variable $y$ after adjusting for potential confounders $x_1,...,x_n$. In the medical literature, I will sometimes encounter ...
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Understanding continuous regression performance metrics for highly skewed dependent variable

I am predicting the likely amount of insurance claims over the next year, starting with a sample of around 200,000 individuals. My dependent variable is continuous, ranging from 0 to around 1,000,000 ...
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Interpreting hazard ratio in Cox regression after manipulating continuous variable

In Cox regression I realize when interpreting hazard ratios (HR) for a continuous variable, it is HR per 1 unit increase. Traditionally I see this for something like per kg, per g, etc. But if the ...
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23 views

Bivariate copula for count and continuous variables?

I'm interested in fit a Copula from my bivariate data with a count variable $Y_{i}$ and a continuous one $X_{i}$. So, let $F(x)$ and $G(x)$ be the margins for the mentioned variables and $C$ the ...
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31 views

Can continuous series be converted to discrete series

Is there any method to change the given continuous series to discrete series.There is a problem I have tried every method possible but I could not solve.The problem is in the image please check out ...
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206 views

Sample size of a “continuous” experimental unit/population instead of “discrete”

It is all easy and intuitive when the experimental unit is discrete, "a person", "a mouse" etc. However, say Peter has taken 5 soil samples from each experimental plot (which is the experimental unit),...
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144 views

Normality test for discrete values of a continuous variable

I have a dataset with several hundred pH measurements from a factory line. This dataset will be used to infer process capability using Minitab. On a physical basis, pH is a continuous scale (being ...
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109 views

How to interpret event study/diff in diff specification with continuous treatment?

Say you are running a diff in diff, where some treatment occured nationally at time t=0, and you use some continuous measure of pre-existing characteristics (or some continuous instrument) to capture '...
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39 views

Random effects for ordinal logistic regression?

I am relatively new to R. I am currently using R studio to run an ordinal logistic regression for some research. Initially I just ran the ordinal logistic regression using R's polr function, I didn't ...
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24 views

Can I treat count data as continuous in Quantile regression?

I have data with the response is the number of dengue disease incidence per year from 2013-2019. The number of incidence per year is a big number, many values of 1000, minimum values is 228. I am ...
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Absolute continuity of distributions — why do we need this? [duplicate]

Why do we define continuous probability distribution as those with absolutely continuous CDF, instead of just continuous CDF?
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Which test is most appropriate for a relationship between two continuous variables using different scales?

Please forgive me if this is a common query but I haven't seen anything which quite answers what I'm looking for. I'm using data concerning the weight change and pH values of plastic samples, the ...
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13 views

Help Correlating Particle Count (Dirtiness) to Chip Pass/Fail

I have two datasets that I’d like to correlate in a way that is helpful and predictive. In our process, we a have a single work piece that should be perfectly clean that will eventually become many ...
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At what level of x (continuous measure) do two binary measures diverge?

Participants at different ages (continuous-data) responded to yes/no questions (binary-data) in two conditions (within-subjects). Younger participants responded similarly to both questions, whereas ...
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1answer
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Analyse data assuming continuous process or discrete process

Assuming I have a dataset of temperature data sampled every 5 minutes and I want to find out its mean. If we assume that the data was sampled from a discrete process we can use the arithmetic mean: $\...
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Can we fit discrete data to a continuous distribution?

why some studies fit the discrete data to a continuous distribution? For example, the rainfall data used in the study are discrete but Gamma and GEV distributions are used to fit the data (https://...
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37 views

How to decide which technique to use to treat outliers?

In my mind, there are multiple ways to treat dataset outliers -> Delete data -> Transforming using log or Bin -> using mean median -> Test separately ...
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15 views

Confidence interval for multiple unit change in continuous covariate

I'm fitting a Cox model with one continuous predictor $x$. $$\lambda(x, t) = \lambda_0(t) exp(x \beta).$$ Lets say I got an output where the estimate for $x$ is $1$ and the standard error is $0.25 <...
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Is it possible to perform indirect comparison of before-after/pre-post studies with continuous outcomes (e.g. mean difference)?

I'm currently in progress to perform a simple pooled analysis between surgical approach A and surgical approach B in treating bone fractures. However, as the technique compared involved surgical ...
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1answer
70 views

Zero-inflated Poisson Regression for Continuous data

I have a continuous variable that I'm trying to model but have a number of issues. The variable is continuous, positive, right skewed and has a large zero-inflation. Whilst the formulation of the ...
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127 views

Rainfall duration is continuous or discrete?

Let's say I have 38 years of hourly rainfall data. The volume is hourly recorded like this ...

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