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Questions tagged [continuous-data]

A random variable $X$ is called continuous if its set of possible values is uncountable, and the chance that it takes any particular value is zero ($\text{P}(X = x) = 0$ for every real number $x$). A random variable is continuous if and only if its cumulative probability distribution function is a continuous function.

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Using one-hot encoded features along with continuous-valued features?

The task I wanted to do is a prediction task where most of the features are continuous numbers and some of the features are one-hot encoded. I am training a neural network and I wondered that, is it ...
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What type of graphic will be suitable for 3 continuous vs 1 categorical variable

I want to create a graphic to explore relationship between 3 continuous and 1 categorical variable. the numeric variables are num of bedrooms range (1-10) num of bathrooms range (1-8) num of ...
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Preference test with two continuous variables

I have two continuous variables, the height of a woman and the height of her male partner. With this data I would like to test preferences, e.g. whether there is a preference for shorter women to be ...
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How to compute and interpret interaction term between continuous variables that have negative values?

I was wondering about the computation and interpretation of interaction terms of continuous variables that are used in a multiple regression. Normally, one would mean-center (or z-standardize) the two ...
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How to model zero-inflated mass data? [duplicate]

I am working with a data set of the mass of plastic found at various sites. At most sites, we found no plastic and so the data is zero-inflated (see histogram below). I want to model the data using ...
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are there any supervised learning methods that can only be applied to data with continuous features?

Are there any methods that exclusively work on continuous features? At first i imagined that linear models would demand this, but discrete values can be transformed and encoded such that they can be ...
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How to transform Beta distribution of second kind into Beta distribution of first kind?

! I tried to solve it in a way but I can't complete in as I don't get any idea how to integrate the Beta kind two integrand within a finite boundary.
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20 views

Get posterior distribution of categorical variable given empirical continuous-categorical priors?

Suppose I have categorical variable $Z \in D$ defined for some finite domain $D$. I also have a continuous variable $X \in \mathbb{R}$ which is observed. From historical data samples I have the ...
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What to use as a “stop” signal in a hierarchical LSTM model with continuous variable-length outputs

I am implementing a hierarchical sequence-to-sequence deep neural network model using long short-term memory (LSTM), where the bottom level of the hierarchy generates discrete outputs (characters from ...
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12 views

Balancing continuous covariates for oversampling

I'm currently looking into methods for restoring balance of a biased dataset with respect to a continuous variable. My problem is similar to this question, with the slight difference that I'm dealing ...
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15 views

Statistical test for three independent variables and one dependent variable

I use SPSS for my data analysis and cannot seem to think of a proper test to test my hypothesis. I have three independent variables (1. direct emotion expression, 2. indirect emotion expression and 3. ...
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Ranked-categorical variables in Artificial Neural Networks?

As far as I understand, input variables in Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) must be continuous, right? (And there are a number of methods to convert categorical to continuous variables described in ...
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Paired vs. Pooled Inference… When is it okay to pair samples?

I understand that paired tests are usually done on sampling distributions that have some sort of linkage. But is there a definitive way to differentiate when to use a paired t test vs. pooled? The ...
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Continuous measure from one specimen. Is there an effect of our intervention? [R]

We have a case report, where an intervention could influence the parameters. We have continuous data (1 Hz) and intervention happens two times during the measurement period. I have depicted the data ...
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35 views

Changing the regression problem to a classification problem

I'd like to do the classification on a crime data around the country. However, what I have for the label is the crime coefficient which is from 0 to 1. I'd like to make up some interval like 0~0.3 as ...
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32 views

How should I deal with continuous independent variables in a regression for ordinal dependent variables?

I am doing a research for which I will perform a data-analysis in SPSS. My dependent variable is 'father involvement'. I have four different questions that have measured different forms of 'father ...
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40 views

How to check the linearity of continuous variable in linear mixed model

I'm doing a linear mixed model using lme. In my adjustement factors, I have a continuous varaible (named X1). And I want to check the linearity of this variable using a spline function or a ...
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17 views

Correlation analysis using a case-control study-based data

I have a case-control study-based data. This is a data to confirm the association of hypertension and BMI. The definition of the case group (hypertension group) is SBP(systolic blood pressure)>=140. ...
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Epidemiological research involving age at exposure to events as a continuous predictor

I'm looking for some more sophisticated analytical methods for assessing age-at-exposure effects. The literature I'm reading typically polytomizes age into groups, which I'd like to use as a last ...
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Real (not rounded) Lower and Upper limits of groups of frequency distribution and Median for infinitely continuous data

From here on page 5: https://www.pbarrett.net/techpapers/percentiles.pdf So how can both be correct – yet seem to be more appropriate under different conditions? The clue is spread throughout the ...
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Compute $P(Y<3X)$ using joint PDF

I'm given a joint pdf $f_{X,Y}(x,y)=2e^{-x-y}, 0<x<y, 0<y $ and asked to compute $P(Y<3X)$. To do this, I let $Y=3X$ (the boundary) and found that the region of integration is under this ...
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53 views

Can eta squared be used for comparing effect size of a categorical (>2 categories) and continuous variable?

I have a linear model with both continuous and categorical (>2 categories) variables. I am aware of other statistics (e.g., AIC sum of weights and lmg from R package relaimpo) that can be used to ...
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R glmmadmb continuous vs categorical interaction multiple comparisons

I'm running a model using glmmadmb and I'm not sure how to do multiple comparisons on an interaction between categorical and continuous predictors. Here are details on the model and data: My ...
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1answer
26 views

Compare results: dependent variable continuous vs binary

I'm using an R package to run interaction between genes using genetic markers (SNPs - single nucleotide polymorphisms). The package allows functions for phenotype (dependent variable) continuous and ...
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2answers
47 views

What is between regression and ordinal classification (or called ordinal regression)?

There are many articles explaining the difference between regression and ordinal classification, most of them mentioned that regression is for continuous response while ordinal classification is for ...
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How to determine the longitudinal duration of effect of one time series on another?

I have two time series related to app usage: Notifications- a time series of notifications sent to the user from the app. User Activity- time series of the user interaction on the app. I am trying ...
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Is going from continuous data to categorical always wrong?

When I read about how to setup your data, one thing I have often come across is that transforming some continuous data into categorical data is not a good idea, since you may very well make the wrong ...
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Advise on how best to categorize unlabeled normalized continuous data set

First, apologies if my ignorance leads me to misstate anything or frame my question poorly. Let's start with the data set I have available. I have a table with about 200K+ salespeople's ...
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Meta analysis: Pooling hazard ratios of continuous vs. dichotomous parameters?

I have a question regarding pooling hazard ratios derived through different means for a meta-analysis. Software: RevMan 5; Method: generic inverse variance (log hazard ratios). My issue is that some ...
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Continuous random variable that is constant for a fraction of the domain

Consider a random variable $X$ defined on $[0,1]$, which is $ X(\omega)= \begin{cases} 0.5, \omega \in [0,0.5]\\ \omega, \omega \in (0.5,1] \end{cases}$. Intuitively, this definition makes sense to me....
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Can two variables be included in same model when if binary B=0, continuous C>0 and when B=1, C=0?

I am interested in looking at the effect of both a binary predictor ("B") and a continuous predictor ("C") on an outcome. However, the value of C is conditional on B in that for B=1, C=0; for B=0, C>0....
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How can you meta-analyse continuous and binary repeated measures outcome data?

Context: the random effects meta-analysis is of studies that measure visits to the doctor (visits), as a continuous variable (by reporting mean visits and respective standard deviations) or as a ...
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Determine expected value for continuous random variable [duplicate]

I know that $E[X^n]$ is found by $$\displaystyle\int_{0}^\infty{x^nf_x(x)dx}$$ I simplified this to $$\displaystyle\int_{0}^\infty{ \frac{x^{\frac{v}{2}-1+n}e^{\frac{-x}{2}}}{\displaystyle\int_{0}^\...
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Can I use logistic regression to calculate the optimal classification threshold between two class based on a single contiguous variable

I have a single contiguous variable, x, and there is two possible classes/labels y for n observations. I need to build a simple binary classifier with a threshold on x so that the number of ...
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28 views

Experimental design: two distinct, extreme group vs gradient design

I am designing an experiment in which I am exposing animals (the salt marsh-inhabiting amphipod Orchestia gammarellus) to environmental drought and salinity stress. I want to induce an evolutionary ...
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Appropriate statistical test for continuos bounded r.v

I have a number of continuous random variables bounded in the domain [0,b] and I need to perform a statistical test to check whether their average is different from ...
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149 views

Bayesian network with continuous variable data set in python

I am looking to predict continuous target lets say Sales with KPIs like price distribution using Bayesian network. I have got it done with BNlearn in R but still ...
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2answers
98 views

Should I treat age as a continuous variable or factor?

Age is a predictor variable among a few others (gender, weight and height) and my response is the log-odds of a certain disease (binomial glm). My age data runs from 21 until 40. I am not sure ...
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92 views

How to engineer a bimodal continuous feature for use in Decision Tree?

I have a predictor that exhibits "bimodal" behaviour. How can I engineer this feature to improve performance within a Decision Tree? For an intuitive example, consider how a binary flag of "moves ...
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Why should binning be avoided at all costs?

So I've read a few posts about why binning should always be avoided. A popular reference for that claim being this link. The main getaway being that the binning points (or cutpoints) are rather ...
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1answer
28 views

accounting for age effects: two age groups and within-group age differences

I am analyzing data from a study with two groups of about 25 healthy participants each, one young (mean age ~25 [~18-~30] years) and one older (mean age 59 [45-75] years). The study was set up mainly ...
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1answer
45 views

Expectation of $h \circ X$

I'm only starting to learn statistics. The definition I've been given for the expected value (expectation) of a continuous random variable X with probability density function (PDF) $f_X$ is the ...
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1answer
47 views

Is there a non-parametric, two-way, continious data ANOVA for replicated repeated measures?

I have data of multiple factors. Let's call them: size (2 levels), geometry (2 levels) and time (242 levels but I can limit my focus to 3 levels, which are relevant). I also have a measure (dependent ...
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11 views

Correlation-like characteristic for ordinal feature with only three values

I have tabular data with two variables: one of them is regular continuous (float) variable and the second one is ordinal with three values only. I want to measure their dependency. (If it can help, I ...
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1answer
40 views

Is it methodologically correct to, in some specific situations, merge related binary variables into one continuous?

I have 10 yes/no binary variables regarding different types of economic risks associated with running a startup. I have a database of around 100 different startup companies evaluated on each of those ...
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1answer
49 views

What test for a 4-level categorical variable and a continuous variable?

I'm currently doing research on whether image quality affects engagement. Image quality is given in 4 categories (bad, benchmark, semi-professional and commercial level) and engagement is in how many ...
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38 views

What is the statistical test to use for a trend analysis for continuous variables (non-paired)?

Please excuse my very elementary question... Please see attached graph. This is an example of the kind of data I'm trying to analyze. The data points are non-paired. There is definitely a time-...
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132 views

Feature selection using information gain numeric features

I am trying to perform feature selection using the information gain criteria i.e. with the information.gain function in the FSelector R package and I am at a loss to what to do with my features that ...
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35 views

How do I code the interaction between a continuous and a categorical variable in a meta-analysis?

I'm currently coding studies for my meta-analysis and I was wondering how I should code the interaction between a categorical variable (1 = private, 2 = public, 3 = misc [both]) and a continuous ...
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1answer
46 views

Calculating Conditional Expectations

Say $X$ is continuous and distributed according to CDF $G$. How would we calculate $\text{E}[X|X<a]$?