Questions tagged [continuous-data]

A random variable $X$ is called continuous if its set of possible values is uncountable, and the chance that it takes any particular value is zero ($\text{P}(X = x) = 0$ for every real number $x$). A random variable is continuous if and only if its cumulative probability distribution function is a continuous function.

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17 views

What type of variable is file size?

Variables can be discrete or continuous. Discrete variables are variables obtained by counting. Continuous variables are generated by measuring something. My variable is "file size" and I ...
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How do I find the constant of a continuous joint probability distribution function in R?

I'm wondering how to set up the calculation for a double integral to solve for the value of c for the problem below. Consider the joint probability density function fXY (x, y) = c(x+y) over the range ...
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Prove that F is continuous at x = a if and only if P(X = a) = 0

Let X be a random variable with distribution function F. Prove that F is continuous at x = a if and only if P(X = a) = 0. Could anyone give some hints? I am wondering where I should start with.
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Calculating Convolution Only for a Certain Interval Using "conv()" in MATLAB

Below you can see the code for convolution of two continuous functions. There is a function called fx which I took as the square root of a Gaussian distribution. ...
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21 views

Probability of sequential occurring of events [closed]

I have say n events ($E_1$, $E_2$, $\dots$, $E_n$) and I have to find if event $E_i$'s occur sequentially in an audio/video/text. I know the individual probability ...
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Calculating propensity scores using logistic regression on continuous covariates [closed]

I am analyzing an observational dataset of 559 observations to explore the difference in some outcomes of 2 treatments. The dataset includes 6 baseline (pre-treatment) variables, which I use to fit a ...
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percentage features VS discrete attribute?

I have a dilemma about some of the features in a dataset. The dataset contains some discrete features. I can represent these features as integers or I can divide them by the total sum and multiply by ...
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Discrete and Continuous variables. What is the definition?

The definition of a continuous variable in our class seems to be, well, not a definition, as there are exceptions not included in its definition. I am a 4th year math student and find it appalling ...
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Is it better to predict one continuous target or split it to set of N discrete bins in DNN training?

I am going to train a DNN to predict a continuous target $Y$ that can reach values $<0,60>$. In a research I have read, such interval was split into a set of $N$ discrete values $Y_1,...Y_N$. I ...
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35 views

Differential Entropy with negative support

Differential Entropy Estimation Hello everyone, I am estimating differential entropy from a continuous distribution of a property of materials. The distributions on the picture are Gaussian Mixtures. ...
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Alternatives to point biserial correlation discrete variable with more than 2 levels

I am trying to estimate the covariance between two variables, one is continuous and the other is discrete. The discrete variable has 3 levels (Red, Blue, Green). I know point biserial correlation will ...
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How to find $P(Y \le X)$ without a joint probability distribution but both functions are known?

This was for homework, but the question has since been replaced by another question for some reason. Anyway: $F_X(x)=\frac{1}{8}x^3, 0\le x \le 2$ $Y=\sqrt{X}$ Find $P(Y\le X)$ This is what is given. ...
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Existence of a random vector whose distribution has full support

Consider a $6\times 1$ continuous random vector $$ \eta\equiv (\eta_1,\eta_2,..., \eta_6) $$ satisfying the following property: $$ \underbrace{\begin{pmatrix} \eta_1\\ \eta_2\\ \eta_3 \end{pmatrix}}_{\...
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ANCOVA when continuous predictor is a main factor of interest: extension of a related post

From the literature, I understand that we often assume an ANCOVA is only useful for "controlling" for covariates. However, from this related Stack Exchange post, an ANCOVA should also be ...
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1answer
56 views

Find $ P(X \le 1) $ [closed]

The random variable X takes values on interval $ [0, 2] $ , where $ P( X =1 ) =0.25 $ $ F( x|x<1) = \ x^2 $ $ F( x|x>1) = \ x-1 $ $ E(X) = 1 $ Find $ P(X \le 1) $ My attempt Since we ...
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How do I apply a regression model to my data with categorical variables and interactions?

I feel crazy stupid for not knowing this but how do I apply a multiple regression model to my data when I have categorical variables, interactions between continuous and categorical variables, and ...
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Can you use a decision tree to predict a numeric variable? Is a decision tree that predicts a numerical variable a regression tree?

I am pretty sure that decision trees are only used to classify categorical variables. But I was wondering if there was a way for one to predict a numeric variable? If there is ... what is the method ...
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Identify respondents that treat continuous data as binary

Setup: Respondents provide answers on a slider ranging from -100 to 100. Some treat the data as binary - see "data_to_reject" and "...
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1answer
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Making New Categories with Cut-points for a continuous Dependent Variable in a repeated measure Study

In one study with repeated measures design, the volume of cutaneous masses has been calculated for each subject (based on the measurement of the length, width, and height of the mass by the caliper) ...
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What are some of the pros and cons of using percentages as opposed to raw number data?

(NOTE: the question and data explained here is not based on a real experiment; it has been randomly generated for the sake of explanation) Let’s say I wanted to compare 3 different coin types—a US ...
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Gwet's AC for single items and summated scale scores: nominal, ordinal or continuous data?

I really hope someone can help me. I am measuring the test-retest reliability of a scale and I am unclear of what kind of variables I am dealing with. I have looked at the following threads: What is ...
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GAMM4 and interaction between two continuous variables

We want to run a general additive model with fixed and random effects. We have a brain measure (Diff) done at four different ages (Age) on the same subject and a behavioural measure (Beh) done only ...
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1answer
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Correlation between categorical and continuous variable

I would like to calculate the correlations between ambient light measurements and the daytime. The ambient light is measured by a smartphone light sensor and is a continuous variable (basically, it is ...
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19 views

Mediation with binary X, binary Y, and continuous M

I am looking to see how a continuous variable (M) would mediate the relationship between a binary X variable and a binary Y variable. Would a transitional mediation test be appropriate? If not what is ...
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206 views

Show that a conditional expectation is zero

Consider two binary random variables $G,Z$ and a continuous random variable $\eta$. Assume that $$ \begin{aligned} & (A) \quad E(\eta|Z=1)=E(\eta|Z=0)=0\\ & (B) \quad Pr(G=1| Z=1, \eta)=1 \...
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Optimal regression model for categorical independent variables and continuous dependent variable

I have a continuous dependant variable (engagement rate) and two categorical independent variables (type and type2) with 4 categories each, trying to regress the relationship. I want to know what is ...
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23 views

Difference-in-differences with sequential reverse treatment

I am working on a model where I examine the effect of staggered state regulations on firms' female board representation (Y) in a panel dataset. y_it = a + b1regulation + b2regulation*post + state ...
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Correlation between dichotomous and continuous variable with non-parametric distribution small data set

I am trying to solve a personal health problem using statistics, which is why I'm posting as a guest. My symptoms are too variable to notice trends myself, doctors are out of ideas, and it's been 3 ...
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Influence of a qualitative variable on the correlation between two quantitative variables

I have a dataset composed of 3 variables for 100 individuals. Two variables (A and B) are quantitative continuous variables and we think there's a linear correlation between them. The third one (C) is ...
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Why is it permissible to use normalized continuous variables alongside binary variables in models?

Since binary variables are 0 or 1 to begin with, it doesn't make sense to normalize them. On the other hand, we normalize continuous variables which usually results in values greater than 0 and less ...
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22 views

Best Method for Continuous Target

I am trying to build a model where my target is continuous with a right-skewed distribution. I am interested to know what are possible models I can try apart from linear regression. I have around 200 ...
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R - Pearson correlation of an ordinal variable (with words) with a continuous variable

My teacher asked me to do a Pearson's correlation but I can't find the R code for it. I have an ordinal variable: how often do you do X? (Daily, Weekly, Monthly, A few times a year, Never) and a ...
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Continuous variable with very large OR and CI in my multiple logistic regression model

I'm trying to compute multiple logistic regression model and here are the results with covariates and covariates only: As you can see, I have a very large range of CI and OR. I don't really ...
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38 views

Diff-in-Diff with continuous treatment variable: graph to test for equal trend

I have a continuous treatment Diff-in-Diff. How can I construct an intuitive graph like the one attached that shows whether the parallel trend assumption is justified? For a dichotomous treatment it ...
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1answer
36 views

Conditional PDF given a random variable theory

I am trying to understand the derivation of the formula for a conditional pdf given another random variable, but I am unsure if my interpretation is correct. I am following the course from MIT - ...
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How to analyze dataset for an ecological study? [duplicate]

My independent variable is health care system (continuous and non normally distributed) and dependent variable are health outcomes(continuous) . This data is available for 40 cities. How should I ...
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How to analyze country specific data with 40 data points?

I have country specific aggregated data with 40 data points. My independent variable is the availability of health care facilities and dependent variable is infant mortality rate. I tried using linear ...
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19 views

scipy norm.pdf return probability of a particular outcome [duplicate]

The Probability of a particular outcome is always zero, but Scipy's norm.pdf() function returns the probability value of a particular event. For example onlinestatbook.com/2/calculators/normal_dist....
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Some clarifications on guidelines for preparing frequency distribution of grouped data

Some of the guidelines given for preparing Frequency distribution for grouped data or "Grouped Frequency Distribution" are given below. I have some doubts regarding the same All classes or ...
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1answer
34 views

Which IRT model is recommended to capture manifest continuous indicators (items)?

The test under investigation comprises of continuous items, whose response space is not limited to a special interval (such as [0;1]). Instead, my items are developed for measuring the execution speed ...
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29 views

Performing Naive Bayes Calculations with Continuous Features

I am working on this homework problem and am not sure how to handle continuous features in a Naive Bayes classifier. I know the outputs for the categorical variables are simple to compute, for example:...
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What does it mean to train a Naive Bayes classifier for categorical features?

I know that Naive Bayes classifiers can be trained for both categorical and continuous (using a Gaussian distribution) features. I am less certain of how these two classifiers would differ. What does ...
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Linear Mixed Effect Model: Control for Continuous Variable that Changes with Condition

This is a neuroimaging study. I have a repeated measures study, where each subject has been scanned under two conditions (Movie1 and Movie2) (same day). I have measured how much they moved during the ...
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348 views

What statistics test to use to compare multiple groups with different sample sizes

I'm running a test where I need to compare four groups on different dependent variables. Two of them are categorical and I'll a use Chi-squared test for the head-count while one y is a continuous ...
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1answer
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Correlation between Migraine Events and Barometric Pressure [closed]

I have historic air pressure line graphs and I have superimposed the dates on which I have suffered migraine attacks. I can see that my migraines are most likely to occur around 3 days after a sharp ...
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1answer
35 views

Correlation between two constant variables using the different approaches [duplicate]

Let's say we have a vector X = (1, 1, 1) and Y = c(2, 2, 2). I want to calculate correlation between those. Taking Pearson ...
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48 views

Can I obtain a multivariate gaussian likelihood using an Ornstein - Uhlenbeck process?

I am interested in calculating the likelihood of a gaussian process, assuming that we have a continuous record of measurements in an interval, e.g. [0, 1]. In this paper, equation 14 gives an ...
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1answer
108 views

How is this connection between Beta and Binomial possible?

I'm learning stats, and I've reasoned about this for many days and I'm losing sleep over it. Say I have a binomial distribution B(k; n, p) simulating a hypothesis <...
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1answer
988 views

Why the sum of two absolutely-continuous random variables isn't necessarily absolutely continuous?

Why "a sum of two absolutely-continuous random variables does not need to be absolutely continuous"? See problem 6.4 on page 6 in https://web.ma.utexas.edu/users/gordanz/notes/...
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Transforming data with a range of values

What is the best way to compute descriptive statistics from a wage_range variable collected as follows and use it for OLS purposes or should this variable be completely ignored from empirical analyses:...

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