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Questions tagged [continuous-data]

A random variable $X$ is called continuous if its set of possible values is uncountable, and the chance that it takes any particular value is zero ($\text{P}(X = x) = 0$ for every real number $x$). A random variable is continuous if and only if its cumulative probability distribution function is a continuous function.

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How should I deal with continuous independent variables in a regression for ordinal dependent variables?

I am doing a research for which I will perform a data-analysis in SPSS. My dependent variable is 'father involvement'. I have four different questions that have measured different forms of 'father ...
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1answer
35 views

How to check the linearity of continuous variable in linear mixed model

I'm doing a linear mixed model using lme. In my adjustement factors, I have a continuous varaible (named X1). And I want to check the linearity of this variable using a spline function or a ...
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15 views

Correlation analysis using a case-control study-based data

I have a case-control study-based data. This is a data to confirm the association of hypertension and BMI. The definition of the case group (hypertension group) is SBP(systolic blood pressure)>=140. ...
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What statistical test should I use when testing many factorial ID and one continuous D, with n = 22,875 [closed]

I need some advice on what statistical tests I should be doing with this large quantity of data. 4 independent factorial variables: location, habitat, direction, species ID. I also have time, if ...
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1answer
13 views

Epidemiological research involving age at exposure to events as a continuous predictor

I'm looking for some more sophisticated analytical methods for assessing age-at-exposure effects. The literature I'm reading typically polytomizes age into groups, which I'd like to use as a last ...
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8 views

Real (not rounded) Lower and Upper limits of groups of frequency distribution and Median for infinitely continuous data

From here on page 5: https://www.pbarrett.net/techpapers/percentiles.pdf So how can both be correct – yet seem to be more appropriate under different conditions? The clue is spread throughout the ...
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3answers
73 views

Compute $P(Y<3X)$ using joint PDF

I'm given a joint pdf $f_{X,Y}(x,y)=2e^{-x-y}, 0<x<y, 0<y $ and asked to compute $P(Y<3X)$. To do this, I let $Y=3X$ (the boundary) and found that the region of integration is under this ...
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1answer
22 views

Can eta squared be used for comparing effect size of a categorical (>2 categories) and continuous variable?

I have a linear model with both continuous and categorical (>2 categories) variables. I am aware of other statistics (e.g., AIC sum of weights and lmg from R package relaimpo) that can be used to ...
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10 views

R glmmadmb continuous vs categorical interaction multiple comparisons

I'm running a model using glmmadmb and I'm not sure how to do multiple comparisons on an interaction between categorical and continuous predictors. Here are details on the model and data: My ...
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1answer
24 views

Compare results: dependent variable continuous vs binary

I'm using an R package to run interaction between genes using genetic markers (SNPs - single nucleotide polymorphisms). The package allows functions for phenotype (dependent variable) continuous and ...
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2answers
35 views

What is between regression and ordinal classification (or called ordinal regression)?

There are many articles explaining the difference between regression and ordinal classification, most of them mentioned that regression is for continuous response while ordinal classification is for ...
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14 views

How to determine the longitudinal duration of effect of one time series on another?

I have two time series related to app usage: Notifications- a time series of notifications sent to the user from the app. User Activity- time series of the user interaction on the app. I am trying ...
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2answers
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Is going from continuous data to categorical always wrong?

When I read about how to setup your data, one thing I have often come across is that transforming some continuous data into categorical data is not a good idea, since you may very well make the wrong ...
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4 views

Advise on how best to categorize unlabeled normalized continuous data set

First, apologies if my ignorance leads me to misstate anything or frame my question poorly. Let's start with the data set I have available. I have a table with about 200K+ salespeople's ...
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11 views

Meta analysis: Pooling hazard ratios of continuous vs. dichotomous parameters?

I have a question regarding pooling hazard ratios derived through different means for a meta-analysis. Software: RevMan 5; Method: generic inverse variance (log hazard ratios). My issue is that some ...
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15 views

Continuous random variable that is constant for a fraction of the domain

Consider a random variable $X$ defined on $[0,1]$, which is $ X(\omega)= \begin{cases} 0.5, \omega \in [0,0.5]\\ \omega, \omega \in (0.5,1] \end{cases}$. Intuitively, this definition makes sense to me....
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Can two variables be included in same model when if binary B=0, continuous C>0 and when B=1, C=0?

I am interested in looking at the effect of both a binary predictor ("B") and a continuous predictor ("C") on an outcome. However, the value of C is conditional on B in that for B=1, C=0; for B=0, C>0....
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23 views

How can you meta-analyse continuous and binary repeated measures outcome data?

Context: the random effects meta-analysis is of studies that measure visits to the doctor (visits), as a continuous variable (by reporting mean visits and respective standard deviations) or as a ...
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1answer
38 views

Determine expected value for continuous random variable [duplicate]

I know that $E[X^n]$ is found by $$\displaystyle\int_{0}^\infty{x^nf_x(x)dx}$$ I simplified this to $$\displaystyle\int_{0}^\infty{ \frac{x^{\frac{v}{2}-1+n}e^{\frac{-x}{2}}}{\displaystyle\int_{0}^\...
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21 views

Can I use logistic regression to calculate the optimal classification threshold between two class based on a single contiguous variable

I have a single contiguous variable, x, and there is two possible classes/labels y for n observations. I need to build a simple binary classifier with a threshold on x so that the number of ...
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28 views

Experimental design: two distinct, extreme group vs gradient design

I am designing an experiment in which I am exposing animals (the salt marsh-inhabiting amphipod Orchestia gammarellus) to environmental drought and salinity stress. I want to induce an evolutionary ...
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Appropriate statistical test for continuos bounded r.v

I have a number of continuous random variables bounded in the domain [0,b] and I need to perform a statistical test to check whether their average is different from ...
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57 views

Bayesian network with continuous variable data set in python

I am looking to predict continuous target lets say Sales with KPIs like price distribution using Bayesian network. I have got it done with BNlearn in R but still ...
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2answers
68 views

Should I treat age as a continuous variable or factor?

Age is a predictor variable among a few others (gender, weight and height) and my response is the log-odds of a certain disease (binomial glm). My age data runs from 21 until 40. I am not sure ...
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1answer
76 views

How to engineer a bimodal continuous feature for use in Decision Tree?

I have a predictor that exhibits "bimodal" behaviour. How can I engineer this feature to improve performance within a Decision Tree? For an intuitive example, consider how a binary flag of "moves ...
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Why should binning be avoided at all costs?

So I've read a few posts about why binning should always be avoided. A popular reference for that claim being this link. The main getaway being that the binning points (or cutpoints) are rather ...
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1answer
27 views

accounting for age effects: two age groups and within-group age differences

I am analyzing data from a study with two groups of about 25 healthy participants each, one young (mean age ~25 [~18-~30] years) and one older (mean age 59 [45-75] years). The study was set up mainly ...
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1answer
45 views

Expectation of $h \circ X$

I'm only starting to learn statistics. The definition I've been given for the expected value (expectation) of a continuous random variable X with probability density function (PDF) $f_X$ is the ...
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1answer
28 views

Is there a non-parametric, two-way, continious data ANOVA for replicated repeated measures?

I have data of multiple factors. Let's call them: size (2 levels), geometry (2 levels) and time (242 levels but I can limit my focus to 3 levels, which are relevant). I also have a measure (dependent ...
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11 views

Correlation-like characteristic for ordinal feature with only three values

I have tabular data with two variables: one of them is regular continuous (float) variable and the second one is ordinal with three values only. I want to measure their dependency. (If it can help, I ...
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1answer
38 views

Is it methodologically correct to, in some specific situations, merge related binary variables into one continuous?

I have 10 yes/no binary variables regarding different types of economic risks associated with running a startup. I have a database of around 100 different startup companies evaluated on each of those ...
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1answer
44 views

What test for a 4-level categorical variable and a continuous variable?

I'm currently doing research on whether image quality affects engagement. Image quality is given in 4 categories (bad, benchmark, semi-professional and commercial level) and engagement is in how many ...
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29 views

What is the statistical test to use for a trend analysis for continuous variables (non-paired)?

Please excuse my very elementary question... Please see attached graph. This is an example of the kind of data I'm trying to analyze. The data points are non-paired. There is definitely a time-...
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87 views

Feature selection using information gain numeric features

I am trying to perform feature selection using the information gain criteria i.e. with the information.gain function in the FSelector R package and I am at a loss to what to do with my features that ...
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33 views

How do I code the interaction between a continuous and a categorical variable in a meta-analysis?

I'm currently coding studies for my meta-analysis and I was wondering how I should code the interaction between a categorical variable (1 = private, 2 = public, 3 = misc [both]) and a continuous ...
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1answer
46 views

Calculating Conditional Expectations

Say $X$ is continuous and distributed according to CDF $G$. How would we calculate $\text{E}[X|X<a]$?
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1answer
159 views

Is rank a categorical variable or quantitative?

A product is rated 1 for poor and 10 for excellent. Does it strictly fall into either category - quantitative or categorical? (Although it seems like it is categorical, I was wondering if treating ...
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1answer
46 views

How to use a Non-Linear Ordinal Variable as (In)dependent Variable?

I am using the World Values Survey and the answers to my independent variable are as follows: Daily Weekly Monthly Never Answers to my dependent variable: Always Usually Never As you can see, the ...
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19 views

Is there a method to find optimal discrete options from continuous data?

I have human perceptual data measured in a continuous scale. I am however not sure that the underlying variable being measures is in reality continuous, in fact I believe it might be a discrete scale. ...
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13 views

How to evaluate the predicted output in terms of order

I am dealing with a pattern recognition problem, where I need to predict the order of N samples. The concept of classes does not exist here. More specifically, I am ...
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0answers
27 views

Why does rank correlation only depend on copula, and not on the margins, if the margins are continuous

I read that for continuous margins, then Rank correlation only depend on copula and not on the margins. However, it is not the case for the non-continuous margins. Is that because the Kendall's tau (...
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1answer
118 views

Very skewed and zero-inflated continuous outcome variable

I am trying to predict a positive and continuous outcome by using the generalized linear model in R (glm function) and I am wondering what family could I use for the training data. Some of the ...
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1answer
29 views

Confused about type of analysis between categorical variable (degree of severity of accident) and continuous variable (number of car passengers)

Good afternoon, As indicated in the title, for a project I am interested in finding any (if at all) relation between the number of passengers in a car and the severity of an accident. I am using JMP ...
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26 views

Statistical Test According to Independent Variables

I wish to test a statistical significance between means of data groups. The groups are determined by a continuous variable, however this continuous variable is applied to different test subjects (...
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2answers
167 views

Question about point mass prior and continuous distribution

Suppose we have a point mass prior, $$\theta \sim \begin{cases} I(\theta=1) ,& prob=\frac{1}{2} \\ Gamma(c,c), & prob=\frac{1}{2} \end{cases}$$ Then if we are asked $\lim_{c \to \infty} ...
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15 views

Checking for correlation with different kind of data

I am trying to check if there is a correlation between different variables. I have values for: Nationality ___________________[Nominal] Age ________________________[Continous-Ratio] Height ...
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0answers
246 views

Bayesian networks with continuous variables in Python [closed]

I am trying to create a Bayesian network model (Probabilistic graphical model) in Python, that can handle continuous data. I have tried using pgmpy, but the 'fit' function in pgmpy has not yet been ...
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2answers
28 views

Can a continuous cause have a discrete effect?

Say we have a continuous temperature as an input and a few climate categories as an output. For example, if the temperature is between 22.93 and ...
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151 views

Calculating variance and standard deviation of continuous time series

I am trying to calculate the variance and standard deviation of an unevenly spaced continuous time series. Example data: ...
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29 views

Continuous Time Probability Function

I'm trying to figure out how to aggregate probabilities of a continuous time probability function. Think about rain charts / weather forecasts. Each hour, or even minute, they say there's a 20% ...