Questions tagged [continuous-data]

A random variable $X$ is called continuous if its set of possible values is uncountable, and the chance that it takes any particular value is zero ($\text{P}(X = x) = 0$ for every real number $x$). A random variable is continuous if and only if its cumulative probability distribution function is a continuous function.

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Transform to a continuous variable [closed]

I need to make my year variable (2010, 2011,...) which is currently numerical in to a continuous variable starting at 0 (0,1,2,...) how can i transform this?
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Fitting a regression model with both binary and continuous responses

It is well known that Probit regression can be formulated as transformed linear model in the following sense: Suppose that $Z = X\beta + \epsilon$ for some normally distributed $\epsilon$ and let $Y = ...
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How to log transform a small percentage value?

My independent variable is interest rate, which is small positive variable(less than 1). When I log transform the values, they turn negative because the values are smaller than 1. What is the solution?...
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Is it acceptable to create a dummy variable out of a quantitative variable?

I have a variable that takes the value of 5% or 10% throughout the data set. Is it okay to transform this variable into a dummy variable such that 10% (high) = 1 and 5% (low) = 0. I am running a ...
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Why is the probability of a set of outcomes possibly non-zero if each outcome's probability is zero in continuous probability? [duplicate]

In continuous probability, $\text{Pr}(X=x) = 0$ for all $x$. However, $\text{Pr}(a \leqslant X \leqslant b) >= 0$ given $b > a$. The $>$ is key here: each individual outcome has zero ...
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Problem with probabilities of functions of continuous random vector

I have problems with a true or false exercise: if the joint pdf of the continuous random vector $(X,Y)$ is $$f(x,y)= \begin{cases}2x,& 0 \le x \le 1, 0 \le y \le 1,\\ 0,& \text{otherwise} \end{...
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Combing two items related to diet from a Likert scale into a new variable

Hi everybody, I have a question related to some analysis I need to do for a paper. For my dependent variable, I want to measure fruit and vegetable consumption. In the questionnaire that I use fruit ...
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How to get $f(x)$ for this continuous random variables? [duplicate]

A probability density function for a continuous random variables, $X$, is shown below: What will be the equation of $f(x)$ in this case? and how $f(x)$ will change if I vary $v_{x}$, for example ...
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Function that receive two variables and decides which statistical analysis should be done

I am trying to create a function that receives two variables (dependent and independent) and figures out according to their class (numeric / factor) and number of groups, which statistical test should ...
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Partial correlation with two metric variables and one nominal variable

I want to compute the Pearson correlation coefficient between two metric variables: (1) mean of an audio feature of persons and (2) their psychopathology measured on a Likert scale. There is a third ...
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R: Multiple regression continuous independent variable interpretation [closed]

I have mental health score as my dependent variable, the relationship with people as one of my independent variables, which has 7 scores representing the mood from the most happy to the most bad. ...
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ANCOVA with all continuous variables

I have the following variables: Psychological trait data collected at pre- and post-intervention Fitness data (e.g., weight in kg), collected at pre- and post-intervention I am interested in seeing ...
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Is Alcohol consumption in units discrete or continuous?

Hi I’m really struggling to decide whether or not alcohol consumption in units is discrete or continuous data. Would really appreciate any help thankyou.
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Which non-parametric two-sample SciPy test to use for my data?

I have three datasets. They contain the angles between a set of vectors (V1) and three other sets of vectors (V2,V3,V5). The datasets should all be continuous and non-parametric, I don't expect a ...
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How can I examine the change in repeated measures scores relative to a one-time clinical questionnaire?

I am using experience sampling methodology (ESM) to collect mood data at multiple point throughout the day for 7 days. At the beginning of the 7 days I also collect depression scores. How can I ...
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Discrete Sampling of Continuous Distribution (with Option to Make It Continuous)

Background: I am attempting to test whether the (mean of) the minimum of a stochastically convex function is above or below zero. The function $f$'s input is a scalar value $x$ and some miscellaneous ...
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interaction and dummy term interpretation WITH partial derivatives using inflection point

I have the following model for returns as a function of firm_profitability, sentiment, and ...
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Comparing the additive vs separate effects of two predictors in logistic regression

Apologies if this question is a duplicate, but I couldn't find the answer to my question by looking at existing questions. I have a sample of individuals for which I have case/control status, two ...
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Can you create continuous data from discrete data?

I am trying to understand the difference between discrete data and continuous data in a real world application. My example is this: Once a day I do pushups until my body is tired. I am counting how ...
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Cumulative distribution function in powerlaw distribution

I am trying to fit the power law distribution to continuous sample (x) which has a sample size n = 360 I'm using the methodology proposed by Aaron Clauset in the python package power-law: A Python ...
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Policy announcement as a treatment variable (causal inference)

I am using data from sub-reddits like [this][1] or [this][2], where users discuss their thoughts on the Federal government unemployment insurance and its fairness. Specifically, I wonder if it makes ...
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Can I treat an experimental condition ordinal variable as continuous and code it so the zero is meaningful?

I conducted an experiment and would like to know if how I treated and coded my treatment variable is permissible. Basically, participants rated targets that vary in terms of how similar they are to ...
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How to extrapolate duration measurements from a small window of time to 24h rates?

I have a very large population (N = 100,000) of RGB/colored lamps, whose color changes I monitor continuously and individually. There are 500 different colors (c1, c2,...,c500), but just a handful of ...
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How to distinguish numerical categorical (Ex: White = 1, Latino = 2 etc) from numerical continuous or discrete variables on a dataset? [duplicate]

I am currently working on a project that involves a data processing pipeline, and in it I might come across all sorts of data. I would like to know if there are any references on an automatic way to ...
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Establish a relationship between calls and sales where calls data is count independent variable

I am trying to model sales of 2020 on calls of 2020 where the values of calls are (0,1,1.5,2,2.5,3,3.5......,19,19.5,20). My lookout is to establish some sort of relationship between the two variables....
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Finding causality using text data

I have read several recent papers on new machine learning methods to find causality using textual unstructured data. Here are some famous examples, and I am still not sure if we can hold the SUTVA ...
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Distance (20cm or 30cm) as categorical or continuous variable? [duplicate]

I am doing a linear model using R, looking at the heating efficiency of three infrared lamps. The explanatory variable is the time taken to heat the core temperature of an animal model to 25C. The ...
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Categorical or continuous? I can't decide

This may seem like a simple question, but it would be helpful to know others' opinions. I am trying to determine the effect of distance on growth. Growth is a continuous variable (i.e. 2.46cm). ...
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Continuous Variables for HR

I also have a question regarding interoperation of logistic regression for continuous variables. We are checking an association between mortality and BMI in the particular population. What does it ...
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How to estimate the conditional probability p(y|x) if y and x are both continuous but y is discrete given x?

For example, $P(Y=f_1(x)|X=x)=g_1(x)$, $P(Y=f_2(x)|X=x)=1-g_1(x)$. (The functions f1,f2 are unknown and need to be learned.) How can I estimate such a conditional probability? I guess that kernel ...
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How to estimate the conditional density p(y|x) from the mixed data if y and x contain both continuous and discrete variables?

There may not be a a conditional density with respect to k-dimensional Lebesgue measure. But I assume that there is a conditional density with respect to a restriction of Lebesgue measure to the ...
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Equation for sample size and confidence for continuous variable in small population

I am looking for the equation showing the relationship between sample size and precision for a continuous variable with a stated confidence interval. I am able to find plenty of documentation for how ...
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Causal inference, stratification to mitigate confounders in continuous variables?

Handling confounders in continuous variables In Statistical Rethinking, the author shows that in different situations, a confounder (fork, pipe, collider, descendent) will induce spurious correlations....
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Most appropriate correlation test for continuous and binary variables for non-normally distributed dataset with a high sample size

I have a dataset with N ≈12800 with two types of variables: independent continuous (distances in m) and a dependent binary variable (yes and no), associated with each distance. I have to test the ...
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Ordinal logistic regression with continuous and categorical independent variable (both ordinal and nominal)

We want to perform ordinal logistic regression with the following properties: Dependent variable: Three ordinal variables (low, medium, and high) Independent variables: Age : Continuous variable ...
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Need help figuring out what statistical test to use (ANOVA or MANOVA)

I am trying to figure out what statistical test I need for my eye tracking study. I have 2 dependent variables: Dependent Variable 1 is continous (gaze behaviour, which is subdivided into fixation ...
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Sample size for medical device which provides repeated measurements

I have a medical device which provides continuous measurements of a substance in the body (X) over time. There is currently an established reference standard (Y) which measures the same substance but ...
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how do i empirically estimate variance of conditional normal distribution?

I've tried searching for this, but maybe I'm not using the correct search strings. suppose I have joint distribution $P(X_1,X_2)$ over 2 continuous random variables $X_1,X_2$ that I can sample from. ...
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How to deal with compass variables (quasi-continuous) in time series modeling? [duplicate]

When analyzing trajectories of airplanes or ships, one often has to deal with sensor variables like "course", which indicates the direction of travel. The course variable exists on [0,360] ...
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Very small sample size alternative to binary response logistic regression for evaluating single-species habitat associations

I'm interested in evaluating the relative importance of different habitat variables on presence/absence of a particular species in habitat patches. I was limited to surveying 20ish sites on account of ...
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Understanding why volatility in diffusion process $(X_t)_{t \in[0,T]}$ is identifiable/known for continuous observations, but the drift is not?

Why is it that when dealing with continuous time observations of a diffusion process $(X_t)_{t \in[0,T]}$, we say that the volatility $\sigma^2$ is "perfectly identifiable" and just usually ...
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How can any sample be drawn from a continuous distribution? [duplicate]

Since the probability of a continuous variable $X$ assume any particular value is always zero, how can any sample be obtained from such distribution? How can we obtain, e.g., the set of observations $\...
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Correlation between binary (true/false) variable(s) and a continuous variable (a real number)

I have four types of binary variables (true or false) and a single continuous variable. I want to analyze the correlation between any of those binary variables with the continuous variable. My dataset ...
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Why variable representation plays a role in prediction?

I am working on binary classification using a random forest, where the data have 977 records and 6 columns. The class ratio is 77:23. I have two derived input variables. One variable is called ...
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R Mediation with continuous predictor and binary logistic regression models

I am running a mediation model using the r mediation package, but I am not getting the correct output for my variable types. I have a continuous predictor, but the output is treating my predictor as a ...
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How to consider categorial ordinal variable?

First, I would like to apologize because I'm a beginner in statistics and I'm surely confused on some points. I would like to explain a continuous quantitative variable, which is a species activity, ...
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Salary of a group of people is continuous or discrete

I have salary data of 3000 employees ranging from 3000 - 10000 dollars. Based on my understanding:(https://mathbitsnotebook.com/Algebra1/FunctionGraphs/FNGContinuousDiscrete.html) Continuous data is ...
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Trying to Understand my Data: New to Statistics

I’m new to statistics and I’m a bit overwhelmed by all of the methods that I’ve been reading about. I’m finding that my biggest hurdle is understanding how my data would fit into different models. I ...
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How can $N(x|\mu, \sigma^2)$ not be 0?

How can $N(x|\mu,\sigma^2)$ not be 0? Because a Gaussian distribution is continuous and therefore there are an infinite number of values that x can occupy in the Gaussian distribution therefore the ...
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Distance is Quantitative continuous, Quantitative continuous on a ratio scale or Quantitative continuous in scale of intervals?

I have sample data and I have one variable which records distance from resident to place of work. I have to chose that this variable is actually of what type. It is Quantitative continuous for sure. ...
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