Questions tagged [cramers-v]

Cramér's V is a measure of association between two categorical variables.

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Large chi-squared value

I have carried out a chi-squared test in an 11x4 table with a sample of c. 11,000 units. I've got a very high chi-squared value (x2=9807; df=30) and the p-value is extremely low (p=2.2e-16), which I ...
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Using Cramér's V to evaluate correlation between categorial variables with small numbers within contingency tables

I am evaluating correlations between categorical variables in a data set. I have seen Cramér's V is one way I can calculate this, and I know it takes the chi-squared statistic as one of the elements ...
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Small/Medium/Large Cramér's V effect size tables available for degrees of freedom > 5?

I've come across numerous tables published online categorizing Cramér's V effect sizes for categorical tables with degrees of freedom $\leq$ 5, for example: $$ \begin{array}{c|lcr} \text{Degrees of ...
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Chi squared and Cramer's V as a measure of independence

Given two categorical variables $A$ and $B$ with the same number of categories, and two observations with frequencies $$\begin{array}{c c} A & B\\ a_1 & b_1\\ a_2 & b_2\\ a_3 & b_3\\ ...
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Is Cramer's V the right tool to use?

I am trying to see if there's any correlation between awareness of a program and several demographical variables (gender, religion and education) Is Cramer's V the right tool to use since they are ...
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Cramer's V for test of homogeneity

Can Cramer's V be adapted for the chi-squared test of homogeneity? I know that Cramer's V has been adapted for the chi-squared test of goodness-of-fit, where it indicates the degree of deviation of ...
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Using phi as a measure of correlation for categorical analysis

I'm working on a data analysis project where I've been asked to measure the association between specific values of categorical variables, and I wanted to make sure my thinking was correct. So for ...
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What is the difference between Lambda and Cramer's V / Pearson's C coefficient?

My textbook lists Cramer's V and Pearson's C as well as Goodman and Kruskal's Lambda as coefficient for measuring the association between nominal variables. It does not state the difference between ...
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Is it valid to calculate Spearman/Cramér's V with duplicate values?

I have a dataset that I want to analyze using statistic measures. Because of the nature of the data, it seems like Cramér's V is the correct method (For cases involving (school) grades only, Spearman ...
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1 answer
314 views

Very small Cramer's V and moderate Odds Ratio?

I'm running a Chi Sq test with 2 binary variables. The data are large (>1 million rows) and not balanced (rare event). The test is statistically significant (p < .0001) and the Cramer's V is ...
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Is there a common language effect size for Cramer's V?

There is a common language effect size (CLES) defined for Cohen's d (such as probability of superiority). Is there anything similar for Cramer's V or generally for r family (measure of association) ...
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How do I know if I can accept or reject the hypothesis?

I have to test a hypothesis that religion is connected to conservatism. I have recoded my variables and I have done a cross-tab and cramer's v test. I am not sure what these values tell me about my ...
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What conclusions can I draw if my sample size is too small

I'm working on a paper involving multiple comparisons that have very small sample sizes (and no chance of increasing them). When I calculate p-values, they usually are not less than the usual .05-...
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What is a use case guide for best practice relatedness metrics between the following variable types?

I'm new to data analysis and I've been messing it up by using Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure possible relationships between different variables in my data set, both dependent and ...
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1 answer
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Interpreting the results of p-value and Cramer's V value

For my assignment I am working on a data set with the sample size n = 4.000.000 and about 450 columns. I have 4 rows in my cross table that have the values winter, spring, summer and fall. So my cross ...
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Pearson's Correlation for percentage data (observations within variable sum up to 100%)

Suppose the following dataset: ...
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When to use Theil's U and Cramer's V, the danger of symmetrical data?

As I understand, Cramer's V method of counting correlation between categorical variables may find correlations between symmetrical data. I searched a ton of sites, but the only thing I found was that ...
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Autocorrelation for a categorical time series

I am having trouble to compute the autocorrelation for different lags in a categorical time series. For instance, consider 3 possible categories: classA, classB and classC, and a vector x representing ...
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RxC Contingency Table to 2x2 Tables for local correlation analysis

I am trying to find if there is a correlation between the two categorical variables (Var1 and Var2). For that I am performing Cramer's V test on the RxC contingency table since the test that gives the ...
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Creation of contigency table and calculation of effect size (Chi2, Cramer's V)

I am a bit unsure in my approach of applying the Chi2 GOF test to my data and calculating the correct effect size. The situation: I am studying the occurrence of specific biological phenomena in ...
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316 views

correlation between binary dependent variable and independent ones

I ran a logistic model to predict a YES/NO (equivalent to 0 or 1, that is a binary variable) through a stepwise selection (I have either categorical and numerical variables). I was then asked to ...
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Appropriate strength test of the chi-square test for large and unbalanced data

I understand different statistical tools have their own pros and cons. I'm trying to find the most appropriate one for my situation. I have a large, unbalanced data set and want to implement the chi-...
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Can Cramér's V be used an effect size measure for McNemar's test?

I'm using McNemar's exact test (with R's "mcnemar.exact" function). I know that giving the odds ratio or proportion would be an adequate measure of effect size (Effect size of McNemar's Test), but ...
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Cramers v when r = 1 and k = 2

I have just read that 'Cramér's V may also be applied to goodness of fit chi-squared models when there is a 1×k table (e.g.: r=1)'. It then goes on to say 'In this case k is taken as the number of ...
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Chi squared test result and Cramer's V value

I have one dataset which contain many categorical variables. The target variable is also categorical. I tried to find correlation between each categorical variable with target variable, using chi ...
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582 views

One sample chi-square

I have analysed very data set using an online calculator. I used a chi-square comparing the differences between 'strongly agree/agree' versus 'strongly disagree/disagree' to specific ...
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interpreting Cramer's V results

I want to measure the magnitude and direction of a relation between two nominal variables: profession and hood. I choose to use Cramer's V based on this explanation. ...
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1 answer
444 views

What are the thresholds for strength of association?

As I was studying Cramers-V I saw two different Youtube videos authoritatively hand down 2 different sets of thresholds for strengths of measures of association. The first video said that 0-.29 was ...
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Huge Chi-Squared Chi2 Test for Independence Statistics; is this methodology correct?

Beginner association question here. I have a dataset (~2.5M rows) with the following data: ...
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Is there a Correlation metric for Categorical vs Numerical features? [duplicate]

I've been searching for some time for a correlation metric analogous to the Pearson correlation value for numerical vs numerical features, or Cramér's V for categorical vs categorical features, but ...
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1 answer
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Is there an alternative to Cramer's V for computing effect size when chi-squared is inappropriate

I have a dataset within which I have a particular response variable that I'm interested in and numerous predictor variables. All variables are nominal and have as many as 15 possible values. When I ...
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1 answer
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How to apply Cramérs $V$ on a 2$\times$2 matrix

I want to find the association between variables and Cramérs V works like a treat for matrices of sizes greater than 2$\times$2. However, for matrices with low frequencies, it does not work well. For ...
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Regarding the interpretation of Cramers'V and Phi

How should I interpret Cramer's V when I have more than two variables in cross-tabulation table? Does the order of variables matter? E.G Gender , Age , Job , Income level Is Cramer's V the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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association measure and statistical test for binary and ordinal variables in large datasets

Which statistical test and measure of association should I use in the following situation? I have a rather large dataset (>30 million obs.). I have a binary variable, and a bunch of other variables (...
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3 votes
0 answers
201 views

How do analyse if a difference between two scores of Cramer's V is significant?

Previous research shows that there is a correlation between two variables. I am researching whether this is true in different groups. It seems like there is: Group 1: X2 (2) = 44.822, p < .001, ...
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Comparing and ranking differentiating attributes across groups

I'm looking for some help on how to approach this problem. Say I have two or more groups of people. Each group has characteristics and attributes. For example, say we have the following two groups: ...
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2 votes
1 answer
4k views

Effect size for goodness of fit chi-square

I would like to assess the effect size of a goodness of fit chi-square test. I have a variable that can have 3 states and test against a custom expected value. I used a variation Cramér's V for a ...
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1 vote
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What are the different ways to discretize continuous features?

I'm working on classification problem. I have a set of continuous & discrete features and I'm trying to list my features in their order of significance. Using chi-squared test as a filter & ...
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8 votes
1 answer
418 views

Cramer's $\phi $ for three-way contingency tables

Can Cramer's $\phi $ be determined for three-way contingency tables? I know how to calculate the expected values, chi squared, and how Cramer's $\phi $ works with two-way contingency tables. However, ...
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7 votes
2 answers
4k views

$\chi^2 $ of multidimensional data

I want to test if two observations of nominal data accord to the same distribution. I am using the chi squared statistics to perform a chi squared homogeneity test and normalize the result with Cramer'...
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1 vote
0 answers
353 views

How is p-value performing as a measure of association?

It's known that Cramér's V (Chisq adjusted for table dimension and sample size) is a good measure of strength association. But what about the p-value? P-value (as a probability of the numbers we have ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Determining $\chi^2 $ for Cramer's $\phi $

I intend to determine Cramer's $\phi$ for two contingency tables of the following form: ...
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6 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the best visualization for Cramér's V?

When visualizing a linear correlation between two continuous variables, one uses a scatter plot, usually in combination with the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. When doing the same for ...
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4 votes
2 answers
3k views

How do I convert Cramer's V to Cohen's d?

Say I have a chi-squared test that compares 3 different groups: $\chi^2_2 = 9.81$, $p=.012$, Cramer's $V=.33$ How would I go about converting this to a $d$-statistic? Is the proper approach in ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Is it possible for Cramer's V to be negative?

To my understanding, Cramer's V cannot be negative because of the way we define it. But here's what I got from SAS:
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4 votes
1 answer
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Cramér's $V$ for one variable

In Wikipedia's summary on Cramér's $V$, it is mentioned that it can (also) be used in the one-dimensional case as measure of concentration. What is the formula in this special case? Is there any ...
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1 vote
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How to convert Spearman's $\rho$, and Cramér's V to Cohen's $d$?

Is there a way to convert both, Spearman's $\rho$, and Cramér's V into the same effect size (f.e. Cohen's $d$), in order to have an information about which of the underlying relationships (nominal&...
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1 vote
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Can the formula developed by Olkin und Siotani (1964) also be used to compare correlations from Spearman's $\rho$ and Cramér's $V$

The followgin formula is normally used for comparing two Pearsons $r$ correlations: Can this formula also be used to compare correlations from Spearman's $\rho$ and Cramér's $V$?
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3 votes
0 answers
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How to interpret Pearson's $r$, Spearman's $\rho$, Cramér's $\phi_{c}$ and Cramér's $V$ correctly?

Is it right that both Cramér's $\phi_{c}$ (and consequently Cramér's $V$ as well) are similar to the Pearson correlation coefficient, $r$, (and so, to Spearman's $\rho$) in its interpretation, as it ...
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