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Questions tagged [equivalence]

An equivalence study is designed to test whether one treatment is nearly equal, or 'equivalent' to another.

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Understanding equivalence testing. Why there are two hypothesis?

I have to two groups and I would like to test that difference between means of these two groups is at least 0.02. I am using TOSTER R package. Here are details: ...
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Two sample t-test to show equality of the two means

Given two (numeric) samples I would like to show that there is not a significant difference between the two means $\mu_{1}$ and $\mu_{2}$. If my goal was to show a significant difference I would ...
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Testing equivalence of two censored distributions

If we observe two censored distributions, where all observations above a cutoff are set at the value of the cutoff, how can we test whether the observable distributions suggest that the two censored ...
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Exam results - is there a statistical difference?

I have exam results from one group of students - typically small size sample 1 to 3 students - vs. a larger group who took the same exam. I have scores on a range of 0 to 15 with most being between 8 ...
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Equivalence test for binomial data?

I have two binomial (success=1 and failure=0) datasets and intend to apply a statistical test to show whether they are statistically equivalence or not. First dataset (x) includes around 164 data ...
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Multivariate Test for Mean Equivalence

I am looking for an equivalence test for multivariate means (arbitrary or normally distributed). Any suggestions or hints in the right direction are appreciated.
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Interpretation of EQUIVNONINF (gofind_t) test

Does anyone know how we can interpret the result of: EQUIVNONINF:gofind_t(alpha,r,s,eps,xv) I run the following code on this contingency table to find whether ...
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Multinomial equivalence test?

I was wondering if there is any statistical equivalence test (in r or python) for multinomial data "a contingency table (4x4)" to know whether the observed and the expected values are equivalence?
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Equivalence test for binominal data

I want to apply an equivalence test on my sample to infer whether they are equivalent or not. Since my data are bionominal [0,1] I don’t know whether the TOST procedure (tost() in R) can handle my ...
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Definition of stable distribution

In some places, I find the following definition of stable distribution: A distribution is said to be stable if a linear combination of two independent random variables with this distribution has ...
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80 views

Kolmogorov–Smirnov TOST based on confidence bands

I am trying to setup a two one-sided test (TOST) version of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (KS) based on confidence bands. I would like to know if there is anything wrong with my approach. Similar to ...
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21 views

Mean Equivalence Test for different and arbitrary distributions

Is there any statistical hypothesis test with which I can test for the equivalence of the means of two arbitrary and different distributions?
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A confirmation about elastic-net and lasso

I would like to confirm numerically that elastic-net and lasso are equivalent under a transformation on the data set using glmnet package in ...
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1answer
75 views

Equivalence testing with p-values

I have two datasets and I want to determine whether they are statistically equivalent. Can I use a hypothesis test, obtain a p-value, and say that if p > 0.05, then the two datasets are ...
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Direct MLE vs Estimating a parameter and then doing MLE

I'm attempting to solve a channel estimation problem for a wireless communications system with equiprobable discrete transmitter inputs $x \in \{+1,-1\}$ and receiver output $y \in \mathbb{R}$. The ...
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Equivalence testing for repeated measures with two independent variables

I have a repeated measures experiment design with two independent variables ('condition' with 2 levels and 'repeat' with 10 levels) and one dependent variable ('performance'). I'd like to know whether ...
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1answer
63 views

Why doesn't the TOST equivalence testing procedure use non-central $t$ distribution to determine the $p$ value?

I'm looking at Lakens' (2017) primer and he tests the hypothesis that there is a difference between two groups $X_1$and $X_2$of magnitude $\Delta=E[X_1]-E[X_2] \neq0$ by subtracting $\Delta$ from the ...
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A/B testing parity (A=B)

I can't find any information on how to run an A/B test that shows that the new implementation B is likely at least as good as A. My metric is visitor conversion so I could use a test of proportions ...
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Is there a less arbitrary way define the margin in non-inferiority and/or equivalence trials?

In a typical equivalence trial, the researcher defines some threshold below which the difference between two means is not considered practically meaningful. In a non-inferiority trial, the same kind ...
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When we compare groups on control variables should we be using tests of equivalence?

In many papers that consider treatments and outcomes, I see tables (usually "table 1") of what might be called nuisance variables (often demographics, sometimes medical conditions) with tests of ...
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Power analysis for a equivalence trial with multiple groups

When doing an equivalence test with two groups, we can use two one-sided t-tests. Power analysis for this can be done in various software, including SAS. However, what if we are attempting to show ...
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84 views

Paired equivalence test to compare machine learning algorithms

I have performance data (resulting from a 10-fold cross validation), for two classifiers, for ~100 datasets. I am looking for a statistical test that can be used to compare the performance of the ...
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Regarding equivalence testing: what does this passage from the BEST method article mean?

The lab I work in uses equivalence. When we get a significant result from a two one-sided test, we conclude that true difference between mu1 and mu2 is likely inside the specified margin, which is ...
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A test for similarity of 2 samples?

I have two samples - one is predicted values and one is actual values. Paired samples t-test suggested that there are no differences between these two samples. Because I remember from stats courses ...
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Alternative to Chi-squared test to check if categorical distribution in two sets are the same

I have expected frequencies in each category as shown below: So my initial data: category - and number of observation of it. There are too many observations, this why: As the sample size grows ...
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Question about group equivalence between treatment and control groups

I was wondering if there are there situations in research wherein equivalence between the treatment and control groups is dependent on time... for instance could there be situations wherein the ...
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Comparing Non-Converged Results of Monte-Carlo Integration

I would like to know which would be the "best" way to compare the results of two different Monte Carlo integration schemes at a non-converged state, and check if they actually compute (converge to) ...
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Is there such thing as a reverse T-Test?

My understanding of the T-Test is that it is a test for checking if two samples are different enough to be considered from different distributions. In the test the default position is that they are ...
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What statistical tests do I use to show equivalent or better performance?

I have a new technique for processing medical images that has advantages over the existing technique. However, the most important aspect is still image quality. I want to show that my new technique ...
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1answer
165 views

Kruskal-Wallis Test for H0: ranks differ between groups and H1: ranks do not differ

The traditional Kruskal-Wallis Test tests null hypothesis $H_A$: ranks do not differ between groups against the alternative hypothesis $H_B$ in which the ranks differ between groups. However, what if ...
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273 views

measurementInvarianceCat() - procedure and interpretation - lavaan

I have identified that sequentially constraining my models I have obtained significant p-value for each. ...
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391 views

lavaan - measurement Invariance - partial metric model

I have used the measurementInvarianceCat() function to conduct Measurement Invariance Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses (MGCFA). The output is the following: ...
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Significant difference one sample T-test fits with my hypotheses?

My hypotheses are as following: Energy intake H0= the mean energy intake is between 90-110% of the calculated requirement. H1= the mean energy intake is not between 90-110% of the calculated ...
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Baseline Equivalency & Validity of Exploratory Analysis

In a non-random control group study of teachers, I find that treatment and control groups have rather unequal baseline scores (of their self-efficacy). Despite this, there are interesting interactions ...
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Method for proving no difference in a set of paired samples

I'm trying to analyze a set of 15 paired samples. The elements of each pair are results of a measurement that produces a scalar value. The first measurement of the pair was done in presence of some ...
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Exact meaning of equivalence in distribution

Consider the real-valued random variables $X,Y,Z,W$ all defined on the same probability space. Let $Y\equiv f(Z,W)$ for some measurable function $f$. Suppose I am told that "$X$ is equivalent in ...
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Equivalence tests and variance

I have two machines that measures the same thing. I want to make sure that they measure the same. I have been reading about equivalence tests, and have been using the advice found here: How to test ...
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Proving an equivalence relation by using numerical methods such as Gaussian quadrature

The background is residual useful life prediction. The following is my problem description. Degradation signal path: $r(t)=\phi+\theta t$ , where $\phi$ is assumed to be the same for all units,and $\...
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Is there any way to assess goodness of fit using equivalence tests sense?

To assess goodness of fit, chi-squired test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, etc. are traditionally recommended. However considering necessity of equivalence tests, these tests seems not to be suitable ...
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Hypothesis testing : t test for mean difference greater than a threshold

How do I test the hypotheses: $H_0: |p_0 - p_1| < c $ vs. $H_1: |p_0 - p_1| \ge c $ for some constant $c$. Because sometimes we may want to adopt a new process only if it exceeds the ...
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Testing equivalence between two survival curves

What is the standard procedure to test equivalence (not difference) between two survival curves? Is it available in R? One way, I think, would be to calculate the 90% confidence interval for the ...
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772 views

ANOVA for equivalence testing

How to perform a ANOVA for statistical equivalence? I red about the two one-sided test (TOST) for equivalence, but (I think) for this study design it is not possible to perform a classical t-test, so ...
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1answer
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equivalence test - why isn't it more common?

Often in frequentist hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis is of the form: $H_0: \theta = 0$ I've seen many posts about how the p-value when doing tests against this null hypothesis is just a ...
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1answer
957 views

Why the null hypothesis should always be written as an equality

It is often stated that the null hypothesis should be written as an equality (see for example here), like for example $\mu_A-\mu_B=0$, while the alternative uses an inequality (for example, $\mu_B\gt\...
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1answer
692 views

TOST for equivalence test

Let's say that we are measuring the tracking position error of two controllers and we want to know if both controllers are similar (we already perform a "differences" test but we are requested to ...
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1answer
515 views

Equivalence testing and difference-in-difference measures

I have some data from a recent experiment that requires slightly more sophisticated testing than I'm used to. Any advice would be most appreciated! The setup: There are control (C) a treatment (T) ...
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1answer
298 views

Is the following statement for variance true?

I know: Let be $X$ a random variable and $c\in\mathbb{R}$. Then is $$Var(cX)=c^2Var(X).$$ But is it true that $$Var(cX)=\underbrace{Var[Var[\ldots Var}_{c \text{ times}}[X]\ldots]]?$$
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If my goal is to show very low correlation, how should I check for statistical significance?

I am working on a research project in social sciences. My null hypothesis is that there is a high correlation between two variables and my alternative hypothesis is that there is very low to no ...
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How can I test for multivariate equivalence?

I have two sets of data and I want to test to see if they were drawn from the same population/distribution. The data sets have around 200 variables, and I want to be able to take into account the ...