# Questions tagged [exchangeability]

A set of random variables is exchangeable when their joint distribution is invariant under any permutation of the random variables.

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### Permutation test comparing nested non-linear models with an exchangeable dummy variable

This question is closely related to an earlier question, but I realized my case was actually a lot more specific than the way I formulated it there, in ways that I think merit a separate answer. I ...
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### Are random variables sampled upon stopping rules exchangeable?

In this article from D. Berry https://www.jstor.org/stable/2684222?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents the author uses an example to introduce some limits of p-values in frequentists analyses. He takes an ...
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### Correlated Bernoulli Trials

Suppose there are $n$ dependent Bernoulli trials, $X_{1}$,...,$X_{n}$ with $% X_{j}\in \{1,0\}$ and $\Pr (X_{j}=1)=q$ for all $j=1,...,n$. For any $% n\geqslant 2$ dependent Bernoulli trials, in the ...
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### How is exchangeability related to covariate shift?

I understand that exchangeability refers to the notion that the order of data in a sequence does not affect the joint distribution of that data. In a sense, the current data we possess is from the ...
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### From bivariate to trivariate probability distribution

Let $\mathcal{G}$ be the space of all possible bivariate probability distributions. Let's pick a bivariate probability distribution $g\in \mathcal{G}$. Can we always find a random vector $(X,Y,Z)$ ...
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### Expected value of maxima of dependent random variables

I don't know if such theorem exists, but what I am looking for is a closed-form solution for $$E[\max(X_1, ..., X_N)]$$ where $X_1, ..., X_N$ is a sequence of dependent identically distributed ...
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### How to regularize when facing exchangeable vectors in deep learning?

I am seeking to estimate a regularization method to estimate the conditional probability $p(y|\mathbf{X})$ where $\mathbf{X}\in\mathbb{R^{n\times m}}$ and where the probabilities are invariant by ...
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### Estimating number of types of things, from many observations

I go on a safari. Each day, I see various animals, and a keep track of all of my observations. Assume that each time I make an observation I see a single animal. At one point, I've made a total of ...
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### How to find the prior distribution in De Finetti Representation Theorem?

I am working with a Polya urn made of red ($r$) and white ($w$) balls. For each extracted ball, I put it back in the urn together with $c=1$ balls of the same color. I have computed the following ...
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### Spherical symmetry: a generalization of exchangeability?

In Kingman, J. (1972) On Random Sequences with Spherical Symmetry. Biometrika, 59(2), 492-494., the author states a theorem that, in his words, "has a close resemblance to de Finetti's theorem on ...
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### Sharing of information and borrowing of strength. What models are there

I am currently working on identifying all the methods that have been implemented in all kinds of disciplines in order to borrow strength. If you have ever used, or came across such methods i would be ...
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### Partial exchangeability - Theory and results

De Finetti has defined in 1938 the concept of partial exchangeability as a weaker form of exchangeability in order to deal with situations in which the symmetry among all observations is not desirable....
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### Which probability distributions are not exchangeable?

Are there any specific families of probability distribution which are not exchangeable by construction? I was thinking that the Hyper Geometric distribution would not be since it models random ...
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### What are some statistical tests for exchangeability of a data set?

The representation theorem of de Finetti is seen by some as motivation for the use of Bayesian and/or hierarchical modeling. In some settings, it may be plausible to assume measurements are ...
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### Notion of “the same” distribution in definitions of “iid” and “exchangable”

Schervish's (1995) Theory of Statistics defines exchangeability like this (p. 7): A finite set $X_1, …, X_n$ of random quantities is said to be exchangeable if every permutation of $(X_1, …, X_n)$ ...
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### When are observations not weakly exchangeable?

In the book "Common errors in statistics" https://www.amazon.com/Common-Errors-Statistics-Avoid-Them/dp/1118294394, I read the following statement Permutation tests only yield exact significance ...
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### Simple question on exchangeability

We say that $(x_1,x_2,\dots)$is an infinitely exchangeable sequence of random variables iff for any permutation $\pi$, $p(x_1,\dots,x_n)=p(x_{\pi(1)},\dots,x_{\pi(n)})$. Let $(x_1,x_2,\dots)$ be an ...
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### intuition behind exchangeability property, and its use in statistical inference

I'm reading "Bayesian Data Analysis" by Gelman et al., and I encountered this exchangeability property: $\{X_n\}_{n \in N}$ is exchangeable if $F_{X_1,\ldots,X_n}(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ is symmetric in its ...
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### Deeper proof of common expected value of random convex weights

$\newcommand{\E}{\mathbb{E}}$Let a finite collection of exchangeable random variables $X_1,...X_n$ (some authors would call this collection "interchangeable" since it is finite, reserving "...
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### GEE model returns GLM results

I have simulated some longitudinal data with 100 subjects and 7 measurements per subject. My data has random intercept which will induce "exchangeable" correlation matrix. My goal is to fit two ...
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### Fixed Regressor Conspiracy and Connection to Exchangeability

In simple regression model regressors are treated as fixed rather than stochastic. Whoever picks the experimental values for the regressors, decides in which frequency to include each value. This can ...
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### When is an ellipsoidally (elliptical) distributed random variable spherically symmetric?

If $Y$ is ellipsoidally distributed, and $\mu_y \propto 1_p$ and $\sum_y = \sigma^2 I$ is $Y$ spherically symmetric? EDIT: added - Is it exchangeably distributed? Please give a proof not a yes/no.
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### How to test the exchangeability of data?

I have implemented a constraint-based random number generator producing 3 columns with the constraint that each row sums to 1: ...
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### What is the intuition behind exchangeable samples under the null hypothesis?

Permutation tests (also called a randomization test, re-randomization test, or an exact test) are very useful and come in handy when the assumption of normal distribution required by for instance, <...
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### Exchangeable Processes over the Simplex

You are likely all familiar with Polya Urn process. I initially start with an urn containing $b$ black balls and $w$ white balls. At each step, I sample a black ball with probability $\frac{b}{b+w}$ ...
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### Bayesian models and exchangeability

I did not see that explicitly mentioned, even though I think it is correct. Isn't the exchangeability assumption the most common assumption about examples in the Bayesian setting? I am thinking of a ...
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### What GEE-exchangeable method can do that robust variance can't?

I asked a related question before here on the difference between GEE method with exchangeable varcov structure v. Robust standard errors known as Huber White method in group randomized trials. As ...