Questions tagged [expectation-maximization]

An optimization algorithm often used for maximum-likelihood estimation in the presence of missing data.

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Expectation-Maximisation derivations [duplicate]

I've come across a few different sources on expectation-maximisation which I can't quite match up. The CS229 lecture 8 [1] states that the function we must write down and maximise is: $$ Q_1 = \sum_{...
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Is this the correct expression for variational distribution q(t) for expectation maximization algorithm?

Just hoping for a sanity check on my equations below. Ultimate goal: apply the EM algorithm to a GMM problem. First I need to come up with an expression for the variational distribution q(t) where ...
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The connection between the expectation in expectation maximization and the importance sampling?

The log-likelihood of the EM algorithm can be expressed as \begin{align} \ell(\theta, x) &= \log p(x|\theta) \\ &= \log \sum_z p(x, z|\theta) \\ &= \log \sum_z \frac{q(z|x)}{q(z|x)}p(x,z|...
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Fitting a mixture model distribution to kurtotic data

I need to fit a parametric distribution to data that has non-zero (unknown) kurtosis. First I tried to fit a Pearson type VII / Student's t, but the fitting is especially poor in the two tails, ...
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Nonlinear filtering with unknown model parameters

I have a Markov chain with scalar states $x_t$ evolving according to $$x_t = x_{t-1} + \boldsymbol\vartheta^{\rm T} {\boldsymbol\varphi_{t-1}}(x_{t-1}) + w_t$$ with unknown but constant parameters $\...
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M step EM algorithm in Mixture Models. Expected value of the indicator variable under the posterior [closed]

I am not able to solve the following expectation. In the EM algorithm, the first step in the M step is to compute the expected value of $\log p(x,z)$ where $x$ are observations and $z$ indicator ...
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42 views

Why marginal likelihood is optimized in expectation maximization?

Suppose we would like maximize a likelihood function $p(\mathbf x, \mathbf z| \theta)$, where $\mathbf x$ is observed, $\mathbf z$ is a latent variable, and $\theta$ is the collection of model ...
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32 views

MCMC inside Expectation Maximization

I wish to optimize the following likelihood function for parameter $\Theta$: $$p(D|\Theta)=\int_X\int_Y p(x, y, D|\Theta)dydx$$ where $X$ and $Y$ are latent variables and only $D$ is observed. I ...
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63 views

Exponential Reestimation Formula in EM Algorithm

I'm trying to understand how to reestimate parameters, as part of the EM algorithm. As a simple example, I'm trying to derive the reestimation formula for an exponential distribution. Here's the setup:...
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How to fit a mixture of a normal and a half normal distribution?

I tried Expectation-Maximization (EM) based fitting using the mixfit function from the mixR package in the R environment. It yielded a normal mixture model with 2 components: 1) pi 0.21, mu: 0.47, sd: ...
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Estimate parameter estimates of hierarchical model

I have the following hierarchical model, where t stands for time and y_t, x_1t, x_2t, ..., z_1t, z_2t,... are known. I want to estimate the parameters of the model using a frequentist approach, not a ...
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Compute membership probabilities in E-step of EM algorithm with log-densities instead of densities

As an exercise I have implemented the EM algorithm for Gaussian mixtures, however, I have the problem that in high dimensions the densities of data points become so small that I get a numerical ...
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Clarification of a passage of Bishop about EM algorithm

I am trying to get a very good grasp of the EM algorithm, including the MCEM variant. There is one little passage of the famous Bishop book (pag 440, Mixture Models and EM) where it says: Now ...
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Derivation of EM in bishop

I'm working through chapter 9 in Bishop (Mixture models and EM) and I'm stuck on equation 9.29. For those without the book: Bishop states that the log likelihood for a latent variable model with ...
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Random forest (or regression) when predictors are intervals

I'm trying to fit a Random Forest model where the predictors are reported as an interval rather than a point estimate. The structure of each data point is a triplet $(\bar{y_i}, x_{i1}, x_{i2})$ where ...
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Evaluating goodness of fit of a model estimated with EM-algorithm (with AIC or BIC)

I am learning a Hidden Markov Model with time varying transition probabilities depending on different features. I do this by estimating the model parameters with the EM-algorithm. Now I would like to ...
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E-step of E-M algorithm with missing data

I am learning expectation-maximization (E-M) algorithm on Coursera and during the course the teacher says that it can be used to handle missing data when fitting Gaussian mixtures (GM) but did not ...
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EM algorithm for mixture of categorical distributions instantly stabilizes

Brief Summary of Question I'm trying to fit a mixture model of categorical distributions (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categorical_distribution). The expectation at the second time step is ...
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Use Expectation-Maximization algorithm for obtaining maximal likelihood estimator

For $X = {(Z_{i}, Y_{i}) : i = 1, ... ,n}$, consider the model: $Y_{i} = \beta_{1} + \beta_{2}Z_{i} + \epsilon_{i}$ where $\epsilon_{1}, ... ,\epsilon_{n}$ are i.i.d $N(0,\sigma^2)$, $Z_{i},...Z_{i}$ ...
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Applying the EM algorithm for model with 'fixed' coefficients

My problem is that I want to apply the EM algorithm on a stochastic model (knowing full well that the model is misspecified). \begin{align} log(y_{t}^2) &= h_t + log(\epsilon_t ^2) \\ h_{t+1} = \...
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Derivation of maximum likelihood for a Gaussian mixture model

I'm working my way through the derivation of EM in Bishop (p. 435). I'm stuck trying to derive to MLE for $\mu_k$ for the gaussian mixture model. Basically I get an extra sum in the numerator. For ...
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Bayesian PCA, problem understanding Expectation Maximization scheme

I'm reading the following article https://papers.nips.cc/paper/1549-bayesian-pca.pdf of Christophe M. Bishop. I've understood the general method, however, I have trouble understanding the EM scheme ...
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Why don't we treat the mean and variances in EM algorithm as latent variables

I know how the Expectation Maximization works. What I fail to understand is why only the mixture components are treated as latent variables and why not the mean and variances values of the K gaussians?...
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What is the Q distribution in expectation maximization in the following explanation?

I am reading a blog on expectation maximization - http://krasserm.github.io/2019/11/21/latent-variable-models-part-1/ Here, I encounter the following expression: When you look at the above ...
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In expectation maximization, why do we have a latent variable distribution for every sample of the data

I am reading this blog on expectation maximization - http://krasserm.github.io/2019/11/21/latent-variable-models-part-1/ Starting the section where the author starts explaining how EM is done in the ...
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Does EM algorithm require us to know the joint (predictive) distribution of the latent variables $Z$ when $Z$ is two-dimensional?

In its general form the E-step of the EM algorithm finds the expectation $$ Q(\theta|\theta') =\int \log[ p(Y,Z | \theta)] p(Z|Y,\theta') d Z$$ where $Y$ the data, $Z$ the latent variables, $\theta'$...
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ELBO maximization with SGD

In cases such as Gaussian mixture models, there's is no closed-term solution for the original likelihood maximization. Maximizing the ELBO, however, does have analytical update formulas (i.e. formulas ...
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interpretation of the estimated parameters of a gaussian mixture model

I need to find/fit a model for the color of an object. Suppose its color is generally yellow and we have 10000-by-3 data which are pixel values for R, G, B channels. Firstly I choose a Multivariate ...
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Gaussian Mixture model - Penalized log-likelihood in EM algorithm not monotone increasing

I am working on a multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model in R. The goal is to do regularized clustering on the data, where each component represents a cluster. I wrote an EM algorithm to maximize a ...
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How to calculate weights in EM-algorithm?

Assume that we have 2 clusters with some initial model: Can you please explain how weights are calculated?
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Fitting mixture model on data with duplicate values

What is the correct procedure to fit finite mixture models on data with many duplicate values using EM? Let's say I have N(0,1) distributed data and try to fit a 2 component mixture using EM. There ...
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Confusion in Sampling using the IP algorithm (Bishop PRML)

I'm reading Bishop's PRML p. 537 and I don't understand one piece of the IP (data augmentation) algorithm. Namely, the part that says "we use the samples $\{\mathbf{Z}^{(l)}\}$ obtained in the I step ...
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Newton-Raphson method to solve for dof when performing MLE of a multivariate Student-t distribution using EM

I am reading the derivation of EM algorithm to estimate the maximum likelihood of a multivariate Student-t distribution $\mathcal{T}(\mathbf{x} \vert \pmb{\mu}, \pmb{\Sigma}, \nu)$ in Kevin Murphy's ...
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Why Expectation and Maximization algorithm not used in Machine Learning while Gradient Descent algorithm used in Machine Learning?

I know that Newton Raphson, Expectation & Maximization, and Gradient Descent are all known to be optimization methods. Somehow, I wonder why Gradient Descent is chosen to be used in most of ...
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Do I impute missing values with the response?

I have a dataset with missing values in both predictors and the response. As far as I know, the data are missing not at random, so I cannot simply use listwise deletion. Instead, I employed the EM ...
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Can someone verify if the following Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) model selection algorithm is correct for Gaussian mixture models?

I am trying to find an automated way of picking the number of clusters $K \in \mathbb{N}$ for unsupervised learning scenarios, specifically for GMM. I was suggested to use something called the "...
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Expectation Maximisation (EM) Algorithm

Some of my parameters do not have a closed form solution. Thus, for these parameters the M-step is implemented via a one-step Newton-Raphson update, i.e., \begin{equation} \theta^{t+1} = \theta^t - \...
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Outlier detection with EM

I am interested in using expectation maximization for outlier detection. In the literature this is usually done assuming that the data of interest are normally distributed while the outliers are ...
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Using expectation maximization for robust regression

What are the advantages/disadvantages of using EM for robust estimation vs. the robust estimation with Huber or Tukey loss functions?
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assessing the stability of importance (sampling) weights

I have read that when importance weights are used, the stability (variability) of the weights should be assessed (Levine and Casella, 2001) -- however, I wonder how this might be accomplished. For ...
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EM-algorithm for two clusters (when one of the distributions is uniform)

I am having a hard time with the EM-algorithm. Here's the problem that I am trying to solve. Dealing with noisy annotations is a common problem in computer vision, especially when using ...
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Accounting for uncertain information (few observations) in a prior (empirial Bayes)

I did not really know how to choose an adequate title for this question, so please feel free to change it. I have a weird case wherein frequentist and Bayesian philosophies come together. I am ...
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Expectation Maximisation vs Expectation Propagation in the context of Bayesian Networks

I am confused about Expectation Maximisation and Expectation Propagation algorithms in the context of Bayesian Networks, especially whether one comprise another. What is the difference between ...
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Consistency of EM for missing data in non-parametric setting

When we have missing data, a parametric model, and an expectation-maximization procedure, and we want to show that our procedure leads to consistent estimators, we can sometimes set up score functions ...
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Calculation of AIC in finite mixture modeling

I have a question about calculation the AIC to find my optimal amount of clusters. I am applying mixture modeling with the EM algorithm. I know the formula AIC = -2ln(log-lik) + 2k. These are my log-...
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Analysing faithful dataset in R using GMM

I have got a project on analysing the faithful data in R found in the package "datasets" and called using data(faithful) which is the data set off eruption time and waiting time of the Old Faithful ...
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Are my data a good candidate for EM imputation followed by exploratory factor analysis?

I am doing Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) in R, using principal axis factoring in the psych package. I have missing data that prevent me getting factor scores, so I am imputing data. I am using ...
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Cosine Similarity for Classification to EM Cluster?

Perhaps my question sounds naive, uncovering the very little knowledge that I have in the field of Statistics, but is very urgent to get a solid answer or trigger for further insights for my concerns. ...
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A trivial question about EM algorithm theory

In "The EM Algorithm and Extensions", second edition, from Geoffrey J. McLachlan and Thriyambakam Krishnan, X is the latent variable, and Y is de observed (incomplete) variable I'm little confuse ...
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1answer
116 views

Using AIC/BIC within cross-validation for likelihood based loss functions

For a course I am teaching, I am having my students fit a Gaussian mixture model using MLEs via the EM algorithm to a bivariate dataset. I have asked the students to use use cross-validation to choose ...

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