Questions tagged [exploratory-data-analysis]

EDA stands for "Exploratory data analysis". Developed by Tukey to contrast with Confirmatory Data Analysis or CDA (the formal testing of hypotheses). EDA is typically concerned with describing data numerically and graphically to make the data easier to understand and to yield new insights.

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How to confirm (for reviewers) that possible nuisance variables have not affected my experimental outcome?

We are undergoing review on an auditory perception experiment. We purposely used naturalistic stimuli, which differ in various acoustic features. To deal with this natural variability, we produced 8 ...
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PCA: is linearity important?

I have a 6 dimensions dataset where I want to apply PCA to remove one dimension. I did a small analysis to check for relationships in my data and concluded that there is very low linear correlation ...
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PCA: does outlier detection make sense with low linear correlation? [duplicate]

I am experimenting PCA to detect outliers based on the reconstruction error. What I do: I start with a 6 dimensions dataset and reduce it to 5 dimensions. Then, I reconstruct the initial dataset and ...
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Holdout and the Multiple Comparisons Problem

I apologize in advance if this is an extremely naive question. I am attempting to analyze a large body of discretized event data (of the form "did this event occur on date X"). This data is ...
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How can orthogonal factors explain more than 100% of the variance? [duplicate]

I'm using Stata's exploratory factor analysis command ("factor"). When I ask for a rotated solution (using the varimax orthogonal method, which is the default) it gives me (aside from the ...
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Outliers for N=4

If you have 4 observations, can you have an outlier? Consider any value outside (Lower fourth-1.5(Fourth Spread), upper fourth+1.5(fourth spread)) as an outlier.
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How to conduct exploratory analysis of repeated measures?

Exploratory analysis of repeated measures--without running statistical tests (told not to because study is underpowered and exploratory...?), what is the best way to visualize and/or quantify trends? ...
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis identifying

I have been explained this technique in class. However, I did not understand some stuff. The professor said that a model to be estimated needs to be at least identified. Identified meaning to be when ...
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Need data preparation cheatsheet / guidelines / first principles to train team members! [closed]

Really ran out of ideas and hence such a basic question to the community - Despite the repeated emphasis on ensuring data accuracy/validity, team members just do not spend enough time on it because ...
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How to analyse this bimodal gamma distribution?

I have collected physiological data with multiple observations from 35 people, across four conditions. In planning the experiment, I had been hoping to perform inferential statistics comparing between ...
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How should I identify the most important motivations to my respondents - factor means or variance explained by factors? (detected by EFA)

I have 11 motivations (M1-M11) in my questionnaire for ocean swimming. After running an EFA, I detected 4 underlying latent factors (relaxation, socialization, etc.) which explained 62% of the ...
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Can I use construct/factor (revealed by EFA) mean scores as explanatory variables in a GLM (binomial family)?

I have 11 motivations (M1-M11) in my questionnaire for ocean swimming. After running an EFA, I detected 4 underlying latent factors (relaxation, socialization, etc.) which explained about 58% of the ...
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Efficient metrics for measuring interaction and Building features

Long time user of tree models, rediscovered the benefits of Linear models recently. Now I want to transfer as much non linearity as possible into my features so to mimic as much as possible the ...
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Many Preprocessing steps can cause data leakage, then how should we perform EDA?

For the past week, I have been constantly checking with people on this sub on how to avoid data leakage during preprocessing like feature selection and/or scaling etc here and here. I understand most ...
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Determining the range of input feature values

I have an application (numerical simulation) in hand, for which I am generating my own data. Initially, I wanted to generate a small subset of data and perform initial ML model training. I was ...
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On the misuse of two sample test: How to report difference in entire "populations"

I have the following understanding: Two (or more) sample tests are only required if conclusion should be drawn about a population based on observed samples (typically much smaller than the population)....
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Differences in the factor - variable relationship in EFA and component - variable relationship in PCA?

When I read about exploratory factor analyses, I saw equations showing that each variable is a linear composite of different factors - with loadings correspond to the coefficient in front of each ...
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Are there two types of Principal Component Analyses? [duplicate]

At first, I learned that PCA is a different type of analysis than factor analysis: PCA is only used for data reduction and factor analysis is used for detecting latent variables that underlie observed ...
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Exploratory Factor Analysis for Big Data: Smaller Loading Threshold and Variance Accounted For?

I saw several pieces of literature mentioned that the larger the sample size, the lower the threshold to be set for loadings to be considered significant, and the lower the variance accounted for. I ...
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Differences in Model Fit Evaluation Between Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

For the same dataset, I tried both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For evaluating EFA model, the cumulative explanation of all latent factors adds up to ...
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What data cleaning method is best to be adopted for price=$0?

Suppose I have an AirBnb dataset. In EDA, i noticed that some room price are 0 (as shown in the example below). Is removing them a best approach since its not possible that a room price is 0? Or ...
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Methodology for exploratory analysis on dataset

This question is about finding the right methodology: A population of cash machine is being analyzed. The variable we are measuring is the money income produced. We are analyzing the variable over a ...
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How to deal with missing values?

I have a question regarding exploratory data analysis, specifically, how to deal with missing values. Here is a toy dataset to describe my question: In exploring each variable (a frequency table ...
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EFA with "found" data

The textbook procedure for EFA is to start by designing the data collection, then you run the EFA to locate (we hope) the latent variables, therein. Does that mean it is not ever valid to conduct and ...
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Exploring relation between x and y [duplicate]

While there are numerous methods in exploring relation between x and y upon receiving a new dataset. Yet it seems I can't find any conclusive guide as of the sequence of analysis, e.g. do correlation ...
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Standardization for using two similar data sets

I need your advice regarding standardization: I have collected two similar datasets from the same population: Error count and time for a group that was tested in person. Error count and time for a ...
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EFA and CFA with a lot of non-random "missing data"

This may be silly question, but I am only newly learning factor analysis. I am working on a project on social media. One of the problems is of the following form: We have circulated a form about ...
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What does the "mass" of a box plot mean?

By “mass” I mean the size of the two subretangles that make up the box in a standard box plot. I thought the mass quantified the observations below and above the median but if it did so every box plot ...
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How to interpret this scatter plot?

I am simulating a population of binary stars by generating many samples of orbital parameters. I'm investigating the relationship between the inclination of the orbit and the fraction of the ...
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Exploratory factor analysis based on separated constructs before CB-SEM?

I've seen a paper where the researcher developed a modified version of the UTAUT2 theoretical model. This modification means that 5 new constructs have been added (from the literature), so the model ...
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Articles about data analysis workflow

I am a non-statistician. I have to write a non-English article about my data analysis workflow for a particular epidemiological regression analysis that I conducted. The article will cover my workflow ...
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Comparing two participant groups on multiple likert scale response options in exploratory study

Hi I am new to CrossValidate so wanted to thank anyone in advance for contributing and looking at my questions. I am presently reviewing data from an exploratory study where two groups of participants ...
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22 views

Categorical data treatment courses

Is there a book or online course/mooc related to the treatment of categorical data? I have seen this course as an elective in my university in the Statistics degree, and also as a core course in a ...
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What approach do I use to analyze this F&B sales data?

I work as a data analyst at a theme park (kind of like disney) but we operate only during 4-6 months in an year. I was asked to analyze the F&B sales at the different locations in the park and ...
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Applying ML to Diagnostic Analytics on Financial Report

Background: We (a team in the IT department) are currently helping the financial team solve their problem, by automating their tasks. The task is this: they review the financial report monthly and ...
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Analysis Course Survey Results

I have data from ~3500 students regarding their experiences taking an online class last year. The class consisted of a unified on-demand component and several sessions on Zoom with instructors. I ...
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Identify regime shift for given data

For a certain process two discrete regimes are obtained by analytical solution. The regimes are identified by a response variable ($x$). If $x = 1$, it is said to be Regime A and if $x = 2$ it is ...
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37 views

what should be the minimum age of sharks that fall in different grades

I have data on sharks. that data contains basic spec. about sharks like length, breadth, age, etc. Sharks have assigned ratings A,B,C,D,E based upon a combination of features. I want to estimate what ...
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Which significance test is the best for measuring the response to two survey questions are significantly different?

I have a survey where there are two questions designed in a Likert Scale (1-7). Let's say: Q1: Your ratings for apples. Q2: Your ratings for pears. By counting the frequency of the likert response. I ...
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Exploratory search for interactions in linear regression with normal distr. of residuals but non-normally distr. DV

I am conducting a very exploratory analysis (I.e., few to no specific predictions about which predictors/interactions are most relevant) assessing whether ten IVs (all binary) predict one DV (...
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Structural Equation modeling (SEM) with EFA

I'm picturing the SEM as it shows. But, each variable (WFB, JS, FS, LS) has 18 items from the survey. Question) In this case, should I reduce the dimension of a variable by using EFA? (because some of ...
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Where can I find source for learning EDA?

In the post (What is the relationship between $Y$ and $X$ in this plot?), I find it's quite interesting to know more deeply about the data rather than just choosing model. In that post, the scatter ...
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A variable that affects the dependent variable and is affected by another independent variable

I was analyzing happiness records data. One of the variables was trust in government and I hypothesized that this variable does not have an actual impact on the happiness score. I believe that this ...
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EFA: variables load on different components as hypothesis

I am doing undegrad thesis sand I stumble on some major problems when doing factors analysis: My research topic is to compare the attitude of people towards 2 types of products (namely A and B). My ...
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Remove dependency from a dependent variable

I am tasked with doing some exploratory data analysis on the Diamond dataset from the library(Ecdat) in R. The assignment states:...
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German electricity market: Do I use a paired or an unpaired t-Test for my data?

In Germany, Frequency Containment Reserve is auctioned daily. Participants bid the amount they wish to receive for being able to react in the event of a frequency deviation. They can bid on different ...
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EDA and Data cleaning can be done before selecting data samples from population?

I have a huge dataset from which I need to select a sample for machine learning. The data set has high NAN and noise. Hence is it good approach to do EDA, cleaning before taking samples?
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Checking the distribution of input variables with missing data imputed in exploratory data analysis

Suppose there are missing data in input variables and the missing rates are relatively high, we use some certain value to impute the missing info. When we check the distribution for input variables in ...
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Factor Analysis - multiple answers from same respondents

i am conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis. I asked 100 subjects to rate the credibility of 4 marketing tactics. I examined 8 tactics in total and 4 tactics were allocated randomly to every ...

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