# Questions tagged [filter]

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### Time series with long “idle” periods - is it safe to eliminate those periods?

Suppose that I have as input a time series $T = \{ t_1, t_2, ..., t_M \}$ where each point is sampled at a fixed time interval (e.g. every 10 ms). The problem is that $T$ contains a lot of periods ...
7 views

### recommendation based on multiple user

I am learning about the recommendation system. How can I make a system where it takes multiple users as input and based on the rating and another attribute it gives recommendation? I have data sets ...
19 views

### Need precision about an example in a book about bayesian filters

My question is about the example here : https://github.com/w407022008/Kalman-and-Bayesian-Filters-in-Python/blob/master/02-Discrete-Bayes.ipynb#Adding-Uncertainty-to-the-Prediction paragraph : ...
51 views

### Do earlier hidden layers learn more concepts/features than later ones, in neural networks?

I am wondering whether there is a general statement of the sort "earlier layers in neural networks learn more concepts/features than later layers" or the other way around. The output layer not being ...
59 views

### Small noise of state process and filtering

Assume we have a linear state-space model: $$z_{k} = Hx_{k} + v_{k}\\ x_{k} = F x_{k-1}+ w_{k}.$$ We are interested in filtering, i.e. we aim to estimate $E[x_{n}|z_{0}, \dots, z_{n}]$. If the ...
16 views

### Effect of log transformation or standardization of a regressor in the filtering step

We are working with a dataset that has hundreds of biomarkers (many of which are correlated) and often they have many missing values. Our initial goal was to use an elastic net but that would require ...
44 views

### Optimality of Bayesian filtering

In Kalman filter, we can show it's a minimum variance filter, which I believe is due to the linearity of system and the Gaussianity of noise. It comes to me that what is the optimality criterion used ...
8 views

### How are Filters values in keras decided

When we use CNN in keras, we only specify kernel size for filter in Convlayer. Let's say I chose 3x3 64 filters. But then, How would all these 64 filters have values? how is it automatically given ...
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272 views

### How to explain exponential plus Gaussian noise

I have some noisy signal. When I substract real (for calibration it is known) or filtered signal I get residuals. When I plot distribution of these residuals I see that it is sum of exponential and ...
51 views

### Introduction to filtering - Kalman filtering

I would like to make a preamble and then introducing the Kalman filter in a work I am writing. In your opinion which are the topics I have to cite? Do you think I should cite Kolmogorov and Wiener ...
### Why is it harder to obtain diagnostic knowledge $p(h\mid z)$ than causal knowledge $p(z\mid h)$? [closed]
Causal knowledge is $p(z\mid h)$, i.e. the probability that a certain state $h$ causes a certain state of the observable variable $z$. Diagnostic knowledge on the other hand refers to the knowledge we ...