# Questions tagged [forecasting]

Prediction of the future events. It is a special case of [prediction], in the context of [time-series].

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356 views

### How do i interpret the output of fourier {forecast}

I have come across a sales forecasting problem. It involves using Fourier transformation. But I have trouble understanding the output. what are the variables and values in the output (fplot1)? how do ...
97 views

### Timeseries with binary regressors

I'm trying to identify impact of some causal events on a given timeseries. However, the trouble is I only know whether the event occurred or not (binary). What kind of techniques can I use to create ...
498 views

### Forecasting with mixed frequency data

Just a general question that I couldn't find too much on. What would be some good approaches to one step ahead forecasting of financial time series with mixed frequencies? Often a lot of the ...
401 views

### ETS or ARIMA model

I have a time series data set and want to predict my data in the future. I would like to when to use a ETS or an ARIMA model? Is is true that you can only use a ETS model when a data is non-...
27 views

### Measuring forecasting risk of linear regression

I want to measure how much risk I take by forecasting something. I know I can measure the error and things like MAD, MSE, ...
111 views

### Interpretation of Regression coefficient

I have a five-variable regression equation, and I added any constant (fixed value, say 100) to all the observations of variable $A$, another (or same) fixed value in variable $B$, while the other ...
83 views

### Incorporating autocorrelation into forecasts

I have a time series $x_{t}$ which is an AR(1) process with a constant term, e.g. $x_{t} = c + \phi x_{t-1} + \epsilon_{t}$ How can I incorporate information about the autocorrelation of $x_{t}$ ...
1k views

### Time Series Analysis vs Linear Regression for GDP data?

I am trying to build a simple econometrics model that uses urban population, total factor productivity among other things to predict future GDP of a country. First I approached the problem by using ...
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### How to choose predictors to forecast?

I have a data sheet includes 66 variables. And explanation variable is seasonal. How to choose the predictors and which model to use? Is there any basic steps?
597 views

### Log transformed MAE to original value

In order to evaluate the forecast accuracy of a model I'm using a step wise cross validation to get a MAE value and use that again to calculate the MASE. As part of the model specification the data ...
527 views

### Mimicking seasonaldummy with fourier in Arima model

I'm trying to forecast data that has an hourly and weekly pattern. The model I made using predictors created using seasonaldummy does a nice job of picking up the hourly weekly pattern, but it takes ...
184 views

### estimating effect size with sMAPE in published results

I'm struggling to get the concept of effect size in the published forecasting literature. Most common metric that is used is the symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error (sMAPE). For instance see ...
396 views

### Seasonality and trend window in the Forecast functions of R

I have time-series power consumption data for one month. The data is sampled at minutes frequency. Thus, for each day I have 1440 observations and for the month (30 days) I have 4320 observations. On ...
122 views

### Irregular seasonality defined as white noise?

I've got data of which I think it has a seasonality. My data has a peak in july/august and one in december. I have only data of 2014 and 2015, but in both of the cases this is happening. (See my graph)...
95 views

### Calculate Forecast Error: Different ways using the mean?

Example: I've got an forecast with 2000 values. Let's say they are for one year. I can group my values into months. Every month can include a different number of single values. (JAN with 200 values + ...
66 views

### Violating use of information in time-series forecasting

I am trying to forecast stock market returns using a rolling time frame. I want to fit a model on a 20 (trading-) day period and then predict one step ahead - the ...
34 views

### Accuracy of time series predicton

I have two time series - actual and predicted. They both can be positive or negative, can jump or remain constant, one can be positive other can be negative - basically any combination is possible ...
137 views

### (S)ARIMA — Hints with Time Series

I am a beginner in time series analysis and I would like discuss a couple of numerical examples here implemented in R. I am reading some interesting books, but I also need some expert advice to get ...
2k views

### Compare forecast models accuracy

I have a time series of number of visitors of an website for two years. I have to do the forecast of the number of visitors for the next semestre. To do so, I used three forecast models: ARIMA, ...
77 views

### Linear Regression Model in R - Which variables should I use?

I would like to fit a linear regression model in R for predicting motorbike prices. My dataset has 13 variables, including number of kilometers driven, colour, month of the first registration, etc. ...
65 views

### crossvalidation for forecasting sales

My objective is to predict the sales 6 weeks in advance. I have data that from 01-Jan-2013 to 31-June-2015. I am supposed to predict the sales from 01-Aug-2015 to 17-Sept-2015 using machine learning. ...
1k views

### Sales forecasting - using historical data in conjunction with new variables

Yes I face the age-old problem of sales forecasting for a large enough company. Mostly to determine our staffing needs for various functions. So I'm only really interested in aggregate data, not ...
62 views

### Non-negative forecasts with missing data and clustering

I have a data set of deposits and withdrawals from bank locations, so each record includes a bank identifier, date stamp, number of deposits, and number of withdrawals. I have included reproducible ...
558 views

### Can ARIMA be used to forecast trend in time series data?

I am new to ARIMA. I have a time series data that has a negative trend.I need to predict its value for the upcoming time period. I know that one of the steps in ARIMA is to de-trend data through ...
74 views

### Forecasting error from GLS estimator

As well known, $\text{Var}(\beta_{gls})\leqslant \text{Var}(\beta_{ols})$. From this, we can conjecture that the following inequality also holds: \text{E}(y_{T+1}-X_{T}\beta_{gls}|\iota(T))^2 \...
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### Strategies for Prediction : Forecasting Production

As an example : I have data for production of a plant for a period of 2 years. Data set: Jan 2013-Jan 2015 I have created a machine learning model to predict production. The sales are to be ...
130 views

### How to compare forecast performance of two subsamples?

I need to compare forecasting performance of two subsamples. I need to evaluate whether a change that was introduced improved the forecasting performance i.e., compare the forecasting performance ...
42 views

### RandomForest one-sided difference in forecasts

I have 1,100 entities (stores) across 80 months with 45 different variables, and I'm trying to predict the occurence of an event (this is a binary result) for each store. For example: ...
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### Advice on predicting continuous dependent variable

My challenge: maximize $R^2$ on an out of sample data set. Constraints: Continuous dependent variable with negative values Over 150 variables with no information about them Some of these ...
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### Using t-statistic to calculate confidence limit from pcr forecast and forecast error

I have come across a usage of the t-statistic that I don't understand. It comes from a government panel. It is work related, and I can't provide the original reference, but I do want to try to ...
248 views

### Constant-output Markov chain in time-series prediction

Suppose a Markov chain with two discrete states $A$ and $B$. The probability of moving from $A$ to $B$ is $0.1$ and the probability of moving from $A$ to $A$ is $0.9$. Similarly, $B$ to $B$ has ...
846 views

### Should I ignore negative prediction values?

I have the following time series of count data: ...
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### How to predict or forecast in transfer function model?

Is there any way to predict a transfer function model by using predict() (or else) in R? I'm searching the package to do forecasting in transfer function model, but couldn't find one.
56 views

### Forecasting daily subscriptions: which method should I use?

I am interested in predicting the data for a day, based on the data given from the 14 previous days. The data I am working with is the number of subscriptions to a website per day. Each day, the ...
67 views

### Hierarchy predictive top down approach

I'm having a problem with using a hierarchical top down forecasting approach. According to my understanding, when I split an aggregated value on the levels below it, I have to know the percentages ...
150 views

### Proc UCM Forecast Series

I'm forecasting a data series with one time dependent variable (GDP) and one 0 1 time indicator "Flag" (0 starting at February 2014, 1 before that). When I use ...
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### What's the nowcasting “bible”?

Is there an accepted best text about nowcasting that you would recommend for someone getting into the field?
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### Time series forecasting using SVM

I am trying to set up a Python code for forecasting a time series, using SVM libraries of scikit-learn. My data contains $X$ values at a day interval for the last one years, and I need to predict $y$ ...
100 views

### Forecasting Prediction Accuracy

Out of 4 error paramters which one is best for evaluating prediction accuracy? Average error Mean absolute error Mean squared error Mean absolute % error why?
229 views

### Improving forecasting output obtained from Winter, ARIMA and TBATS method

I am trying to forecast commodity price for next year. I have collected and plotted monthly average prices from last 10 years.Plot has been attached. I used Holt's-Winter method on prices till 2014 ...
532 views

### Timeseries forecasting (Cointegration)

I am trying to forecast commodity price fluctuations in a small dataset. The data I am using is here . Does my data have seasonality and Trend? Can someone explain me how to decide that? If my data ...
1k views

### Questionable Output from Time Series Forecast Using MSTS and TBATS from R forecast package

Using historical daily order totals, I'm wanting to forecast the totals of the next 7 days. It's known in my field that these totals fall subject to weekly and yearly seasonal trends. Called ...
269 views

### Multivariate stochastic time series forecasting

I have a multivariate time series like this ...
557 views

### Better forecast on seasonal type and lessthan 1 year of data

I have a client which started on december 2014 and they are only capable of sending their sales during middle and last day of the month. I used exponential smoothing to get their forecast sales. The ...
1k views

### Forecasting in r using ets() of forecast package..seasonality and trend not detected

I have tried forecasting in R using ets(). I let ets choose the best model for my data. The problem is i observed that eventhough the data shows an increasing trend and exhibits seasonality, ets is ...
357 views

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### autocorrelation in evaluating time series forecasts

I'm having some trouble wrapping my head around whether using Holt-Winters ETS or an ARIMA model for forecasting sales figures (which are highly seasonal). I'm been using R and the Forecast package --...