Questions tagged [function]

A mapping between a set of inputs and a set of outputs.

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1answer
338 views

Estimate variance of a function given variances of variables

I'm given the mean and the standard deviation of N Gaussian random variables $A$, $B$, $C$, $D$... I compute the function $f:=f(A, B, C, D...) = \frac { AB... }{ CD... } $. How can I estimate the ...
4
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1answer
472 views

Arbitrary function approximation in one dimension

Suppose we have some arbitrary function $f: X \mapsto Y, X \in \mathbb{R}, Y \in [0, 1]$. It may be smooth but it may not. I am looking for some way to approximate this function given samples drawn ...
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1answer
298 views

Decomposing a random variable with random mean into a sum

I have two random variables: $X\sim \mathcal{N}(0,\sigma^2+1)$. $Z$, a gaussian with mean $X$, distributed so that $E_{X,Z}[(X-Z)^2]=s^2.$ We know that: $$s^2\geq\sigma^2+1 \Leftrightarrow Z \text{ ...
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1answer
646 views

Implication of Hazard Rate?

So from my understanding, the hazard rate is not a probability but a rate of an event happening at any one period of time. Can someone please tell me the implications of a hazard rate value. Would ...
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1answer
25 views

Learning a spatial function

I have some observations of a variable y, that varies spatially. For each observation, I also have a lat, long tuple. I have some 50 or so observations. Besides conducting some exploratory analysis ...
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2answers
4k views

Apply function generating random numbers to a matrix (R) [closed]

I have a function which basically creates a random number. Now I want to apply the function to a matrix for given conditions to replace the value in the matrix with the random number created by the ...
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1answer
85 views

Find distribution of underlying feature

Let's say I have a dataset with values for the variable $W$. The distribution of $W$ doesn't follow any obvious known distribution. I have a model that gives $W$ as a functions of $E$ and $K, W = f(E,...
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0answers
92 views

Using A Time Series To “Scale” Another

I know the "average theoretical cost per impression" for Jan 13 - Dec 13. I have other monthly time series for "total # of impressions", "total # of clicks" and "total number of conversions" for Jan ...
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0answers
69 views

Calculate pdf of complex model

I'm trying to model the distribution of effects of mutations (let's call it s) in evolution but I'm stuck in generating the probability distribution function (pdf) for my model. So, my model is a ...
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1answer
227 views

What is the name of the resulting function?

Consider the following population regression model: $$y_{i} = \beta _{1} + \beta_{2}x_{i} + \epsilon _{i},$$ where $i=1,...,n$. Assume $\epsilon \sim iid$, with the pdf in equation: $f(\epsilon ) = \...
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0answers
166 views

Validating sameness or difference of a relationship

I am measuring a response variable Y(x,t) which theoretically is a function of both time (t) and space (x). I have measurements for Y as t varies for different spatial points x. On inspecting visually ...
3
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1answer
229 views

Time Series Function - Constant vs Piecewise

I have daily data for online marketing $ spend and the number of clicks to the website gained. I want to determine a function that 'maps' the two together. I cannot use normal linear regression ...
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2answers
283 views

Can you compare probabilities of an epidemic by knowing R0 values?

In comparing two diseases with different basic reproduction numbers (R0), is it possible to use the R0 values to calculate the probability of an epidemic spread through a population? For example, if ...
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2answers
286 views

What is this formula?

i have been asked to plot a graph of the residuals from the following formula: |y(hat)/y|-1 they said that it was MAPE but i have the formula for MAPE as: ...
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0answers
68 views

How can you cluster a set of functions with unknown functional forms?

Say you've $N$ functions $f_N(x)$ defined on a regular grid $x$. You don't know the form of $f(x)$, you've only got several realizations of it. The different functions are related to each other ...
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1answer
160 views

Correct notation wrt. uniform distribution

Assume that I have a discrete set $L$ and a transformation $\phi: L \rightarrow [0,1]$ that normalizes set $L$ such that now values belonging $L$ are uniformly distributed among the unit interval. ...
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2answers
251 views

Generating functional-form PDF from Max Likelihood Estimation

For the purpose of this question, please consider me a stats newbie. I'm working on a (very fun!) research project which involves estimating a pdf of "personal values" -- i.e. how much a certain ...
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2answers
873 views

Given the distribution of a variable X, what is the distribution of f(X)?

Suppose I know the mean and standard deviation of a (roughly) normally distributed variable x. Is there any way for me to calculate the mean and standard deviation of f(x)? The particular problem I ...
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1answer
1k views

dealing with exponentials in python - infinities and overflows [duplicate]

In a machine learning algorithm that I'm using, I need to get the exponential values of something in one of the steps. This is the step that I'm dealing with right now: I've already got all the 1+...
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0answers
99 views

How to interpret basis function that yields vector in machine learning algorithm?

I'm struggling to understand what $\phi(x_{N+1})$ is in this excerpt of an algorithm (namely Linear Bayesian Regression embedded in other algorithm): $c_i = \gamma_i / \sum^L_{j} \gamma_j$ $V_i^{N+1}...
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2answers
294 views

How to properly handle Infs in a statistical function?

Suppose I have a function such like: f <- function(x){ exp(x) / (1 + exp(x)) } it's supposed to work for any real value of x, but actually it returns NaN ...
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3answers
3k views

Difficulty with auto.arima function results

I am new to R and the ARIMA model and I am attemping to forecast 1440 values into the future using a base of roughly 5000 ...
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2answers
263 views

cumulative distribution function , cdf problem

I cannot understand how step 2 transformed to step 3, anybody help me please ???
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1answer
2k views

Calculating power function for ANOVA

There are several functions in R to calculate the power of a test, for example, the pwr-functions of the pwr package. My question is how we get this function for ...
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1answer
255 views

Gradient without function, just testing and training data

I am new to optimization in particular so I think what I am looking for is vocabulary to describe a particular area of problems. In many (all?) optimization algorithms you need to take the gradient of ...
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1answer
2k views

Function to find the quantile in a vector corresponding to constant $x$ [closed]

Suppose I have constant x=0.1 in the language R and I have a vector vec = rnorm(200). Is ...
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2answers
397 views

Function of random variables

I am not sure what the right keywords would be for this but I would like to know if it is possible to apply functions to random variables. I think it may make sense in terms of expected value but I ...
2
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1answer
1k views

R - Calculate trendline and extend it for 365 days automatically

I have daily data with logarithmic decreasing trend (around 30-days-data). In excel I'm calculating these data's trendline and with that trendline equation, I'm projecting these values to 365-days ...
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1answer
114 views

Requirements for evaluation function in evolutionary algorithms

For a publication I'm looking for references for generic requirements of evaluation/fitness functions in evolutionary (more specifically genetic) algorithms. I could come up with some requirements ...
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1answer
165 views

Can I derive the PDF ( f(C) ) from a spatial function defined as C(x)?

Say I have a random variable (such as concentration) that is defined spatially by some function $C(x)$. I would like to derive a PDF $(f(C))$ from the concentration function $C(x)$ over some domain ...
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1answer
3k views

Finding the similarity between two functions

I am a first-year grad student in Computer Science, and I need some help with a problem that I think is statistically oriented. I have taken a statistics course, but it was abysmal and I haven't had ...
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1answer
184 views

Cumulative function to probability density function

I have some data points for which I would like to show the density using Python, but the package SciPy is not working for Python 3.3. I am looking for a solution to be able to plot some data in the ...
3
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1answer
1k views

R: Defining a new continuous distribution function to use with Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test

I wish to run the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on my data to determine how well it conforms to a specific continuous distribution function I have in mind. If my understanding is correct, the Kolmogorov-...
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1answer
1k views

calculation of correlation time?

I have two time series of a two realizations of a random process, the process fluctuate around an average so i consider that is a ergodic process. I compute the time correlation function, but i need ...
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1answer
336 views

Can I represent a non-boolean function with a TREE?

I have a question in respect to tree representation of a non-Boolean function. Is there any problem in representing a function from space Boolean->Limited Integer or Limited Integer->Limited ...
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0answers
103 views

Question related to binomial distribution

Let $X \sim Binomial (n, p)$ with both $n$ and $p$ known. Suppose for some non-increasing function $G:[0,1] \rightarrow [0,1]$, and some fixed $c_0 \in [0,1]$, we have that \begin{align} \label{ineq}...
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2answers
1k views

How to estimate the accuracy of an integral?

An extremely common situation in computer graphics is that the colour of some pixel is equal to the integral of some real-valued function. Often the function is too complicated to solve analytically, ...
12
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1answer
5k views

Proof that if higher moment exists then lower moment also exists

The $r$-th moment of a random variable $X$ is finite if $$ \mathbb E(|X^r|)< \infty $$ I am trying to show that for any positive integer $s<r$, then the $s$-th moment $\mathbb E[|X^s|]$ is ...
4
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1answer
296 views

Objective function in linked prediction models

I would like to use R “optimize” function to estimate the model: $\hat{Y_{t}}=a\cdot \hat{Y}_{t-1}+b\cdot X_{t}+c\cdot X_{t-1}$ Important thing is that the predition $\hat{Y_{t}}$ (let’s say ...
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3answers
517 views

Find a mapping of two probability mass function to another probability mass function

Lets' $p$ and $q$ are probability mass functions of two discrete random variables. I need examples of functions $F(p,q)$ that $r = F(p,q)$ and $r$ is a probability mass function for some random ...
7
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1answer
2k views

In spatial regression, what is a spherical autocorrelation structure?

I have a large gridded dataset for the globe (i.e a spherical, wraparound surface) that I'm applying spatial regression to (using a CAR model). I've been using the default autocorrelation function, ...
10
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1answer
411 views

Proving a sequence decreases (supported by plotting a large number of pts)

Many of the questions I've posted on SE in the last month have been in the goal of helping me solve this particular problem. The questions have all been answered, but I still can't come up with a ...
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0answers
166 views

Estimating the x-intercept of an arbitrary monotonically increasing function

I have a continuous monotonically increasing function, $f(x)$, whose $x$-intercept, $x^*$, I am trying to estimate. I have a dataset of $(x_i,y_i)$ pairs, with each $y_i=f(x_i)+\varepsilon_i$, where $\...
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0answers
194 views

What's the difference between $p(x \mid \theta)$ and $p(x; \theta)$? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Meaning of probability notations $P(z;d,w)$ and $P(z|d,w)$ Can you tell me the difference between $p(x \mid \theta)$ and $p(x; \theta)$? I know $p(x \mid \theta)$ is the ...
9
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2answers
502 views

Advantages of approaching a problem by formulating a cost function that is globally optimizable

This is a rather general question (i.e. not necessarily specific to statistics), but I have noticed a trend in the machine learning and statistical literature where authors prefer to follow the ...
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2answers
831 views

Family of functions ranging from zero to one with parameter influencing rate of approach to one

What is a family of functions which goes from 0 to 1 and has one or more parameters that alters the rate at which a value of 1 is approached?

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