# Questions tagged [geostatistics]

Statistical modeling and analysis of georeferenced data, often modeling spatial covariance. An example is kriging.

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### Gridded data: Statistics to determine hotspots over this domain [closed]

I have 3 plots as shown below. They are gridded data and I have them as shapefiles and netcdf format. I am trying to find the best way (statistically) to determine hotspots of these pollutants. How ...
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### How to predict the time of next trajectory for users

I am working with the Geolife dataset and would like to create a statistical model to predict when users will go on their next trip. The implication is to see if we can build a model to be able to ...
52 views

### Why do we treat a value at each location as a random variable?

Apology if my question is very simple to you (I am very new to geostatistic). Suppose that X is a random variable (e.g., the concentration of the Zinc at a specific ...
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### How can I create a map of variance for IDW predictions?

Unlike with kriging, predicting spatial variation using the IDW function from gstat returns only predicted values, not estimates of variation. ...
22 views

### How to use regression of data linked in space and over time?

I have an R data frame, set up like so: ...
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### Is the spherical covariance function not positive definite for d > 3?

I read in a textbook (Japanese one) that the spherical covariance function is only valid for dimensions $d = 1,$ $2,$ and $3.$ I have the following questions: Does that mean the spherical covariance ...
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### Cokriging variances differ using cross validation

I'm investigating cokriging using various metals in the Meuse dataset but the variances output by R when I predict values at gridded points differ substantially from the variances produced by cross ...
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### What are the possible machine learning models for this geospatial analysis task?

I am new to ML and have some experience with building CNN models. I recently got involved with a research project and here is the task I have to work on: I've been given some (latitudes,longitudes) ...
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### Zonal statistics (mean± StDev) from polygons with different area

I am analyzing a temperature image using a land cover map with the overall goal to prepare a barplot where I report the mean ± StDev temperature for each land cover class. To do so I assigned each ...
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### why variogram models take only one independent variable

lznr.vgm = variogram(log(zinc)~sqrt(dist), meuse) i am using meuse data for practicing to create variogram models, but i am confused to know there are 14 ...
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### Correlating Two Time Series with Gaps in Data and of Different Lengths

I am attempting to correlate the time series from 4 separate tilt monitors that sample every 5 minutes. The time series have slightly different base times and end times, and the resulting arrays are ...
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### Kriging with Weighted Data

I have a point-level dataset of apartment building level rent. I have the average rent per square foot per building and the number of units in that building. I would like to krige a surface of points ...
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### Controlling for spatial confounding in point-referenced data

I have a point-referenced data set with 2 binary outcomes. The data shows a strong correlation between these binary attributes - however, the geographic clustering is also qualitatively clear. I would ...
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### Finding the effect of nodes on a density heatmap

Let's say I have a geo-tagged dataset of all payment transactions for businesses in a city. I know whether each payment is made by cash or card, and have made a heatmap of where in the city the ...
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### Statistical tests of significance for land use analysis: which one to choose?

I'm not an expert in geostatistics but I need to do a statistical tests of significance to understand which differences between studied categories are statistically significant. Here's the practical ...
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### Return Period and Probability

My question is simple: If I assume that the probability to be hit by a lightning strike for a person in this year was 0.5 percent would it mean that if I was able to live 200 years I would be hit by ...
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### Using Markov random field spatial weights to account for spatial autocorrelation

I am looking at the relationship between life expectancy and smoking rate within the London boroughs. I thus created a bayesx spatial regression model including a term which assigns spatial ...
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### Considerations When Using Lat/Long Cords on Classifier

I'm interested in using Latitude and Longitude points as features to build a classifier model, but would like to better understand if I need to be taking any precautions when using Lat/Long cords in ...
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### Can I create a test dataset with known errors to validate accuracy assessment? [closed]

I developed a procedure to measure the geometric accuracy of 3D building models based on the similarity to a 3D point cloud. Therefore I created mainly two quality criteria. The result of my automatic ...
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### Statistical analysis of polygons QGIS : find areas of statistical difference

I have polygons for the country divided into E.D. areas. These polygons illustrate the average annual rainfall in their ED area. Is there any way to statistically tell if one polygon area has a ...
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### How can I understand these variograms?

Using grf function from R package geoR, I simulated 6 replicates (each with 1000 samples) of a Gaussian random field on ...
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### Spatial autocorrelation in 2sls regression in R

Is there a function in R which can be used to control for (geo)spatial autocorrelation in the data in a 2SLS regression? If there is no canned function, what other method can I use to calculate them?
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### Anomaly detection with geo spatial data

I have geo spatial data. Dataset represents concentration of something. For instance, social media activity of people in point [time, lat, lon] I have some list of feature for every points (lat, lon):...
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### Cerioli's modified test of indepence with spatial data

I have to two datasets $X$ and $Y$ with binary observations on a regular grid. A regular contingency test for independence would be flawed by the presence of spatial autocorrelation. Cerioli (1997) ...
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### What is the nugget effect?

I don't understand exactly what is meant by the term "nugget effect" in geostatistics. When looking at empirical variograms plotting the variogram $\gamma(h)$ vs. the lag $h$, the nugget is defined as ...
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### Temporal Variogram

Can we compute temporal variograms just like spatial variograms? I know about spatio-temporal variograms but I am more interested in doing a comparison of separate spatial and temporal variograms and ...
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### How much data do I need in spatial hotspot analysis?

I'm now doing a project about spatial hotspot analysis. I read many literatures, however, I can't find any papers tell how they determine the data size they used. I mean, suppose we have crime ...
119 views

### How do you interpret this variogram?

Description: 8000 spatial data points spanned over an entire state 200 bins are used My question: Is the variogram telling something about the nature of the data? Why is it fluctuating? Should I do ...
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### What is the best procedure to detrend data without loosing its anisotropy?

I wand to detrend some spatial data "A" with respect to two parameter "B&C". What is the best procedure to detrend A without loosing its anisotropy. Theoretically values of "A" should be ...
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### How to generate distance variable using street addresses [closed]

I have data of sold apartments. There is a street address for every apartment and I would like to generate a new variable that tells the distance from the train station. There are over thousand units ...
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### Stationarity assumption for a point process

as I understand stationarity of a point process implies that it is invariant under translation. Imagine one has numerous realizations of the same point process. Due to the nature of this process, it ...
322 views

### What is the difference between accounting for anisotropy and trend removal when performing Kriging?

Without being geostatistician, I read a bit about anisotropy detection, mostly from ArcGIS documentation and the R gstat package tutorial. But still, it is hard to have a confident understanding of ...
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### How to test for correlation between two weather station's data

I have about 15 weather stations, separated by quite a bit of kilometers. The data in these stations are the same for all, so is the resolution (daily). I want to try and find which of the stations ...
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### What is 5th order kriging?

For our foray into geostatistics we got data that consists of measurements taken from the soil. The dataset has like concentrations of various different minerals. We were divided into a number of ...
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### Explain Like I'm Five version for Variograms in R's gstat package

Long story short, I asked a question on StackOverflow about Variograms in the gstat package in R. The person who answered gave me some tips on creating the variogram using the package. My dataset is ...
177 views

### Interpretation of probability in geostatistics

In geostatistics, the concept of a random field is used in e.g. Kriging. Hence, at each point in your study area, there is a probability distribution. Should this probability be given a frequentistic ...
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### type of continuity in geo-statistics

I am reading the book by Wackernagel, H. (1995) Multivariate Geostatistics: An Introduction with Applications and on page 49 The fit is done by eye because it is generally not so relevant how well the ...
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### How to cluster trips, i.e. directed lines on a plain

I need to cluster transports/trips based on their start point and end point in longitude/latitude. I have about 5000 trips. Each has a starting point (lon/lat) and an end point (lon/lat). I computed ...
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### Clustering/pairing users based on multiple lat/lon values?

I have a data set that contains entities and lat/lon values for each one, potentially multiple lat/lon values. I believe that some of these entities may actually be the same person, although I can't ...
158 views

### How, in practice, are spatial covariances determined?

How, in practice, are spatial covariances determined? If one has a single realisation of some observed field, how can the spatial covariance ever be determined? Unless one has access to the many other ...
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### What is the computational complexity of the empirical variogram?

If we use the method of moments estimator: $2\hat{\gamma}(h) = \frac{1}{| N(h) |} \sum_{N(h)} (Z(s_i) - Z(s_j))^2$ What is the computational complexity? My initial assumption was that it would be \$...
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### Is there an approach to combining variograms?

If we compute two seperate variograms for the same type of measurement, but the areas which they cover overlap, is there a logical way (or does it even make sense) to combine the two variograms? ...
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### ML model selection for prediction of latitude and longitude

I am doing a project in which my aim is to predict the likely locations of a set of latitude/longitude points based on a couple of variables. Since I've never done any ML on locational data, which ...
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### Using von Mises-Fisher distributions for geo-spatial machine learning

There's an interesting paper about predicting the geographical co-ordinates of Twitter users based on the kinds of words that they use in their posts. I'd like to do something similar that involves ...
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### Predictive model with geospatial data

I have datas of random events with gps and time variables. I would like to compute probabilities of an event happening at a given time and location. In the training set, we have about 1500 possibles ...
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### The right way to use Machine Learning to predict latitude and longitude

There are some simple ML techniques that can be used to easily predict latitude/longitude co-ordinates, such as predicting the latitude and longitude separately using two different models. However, I ...
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### Do I need a special kind of linear regression for aggregated data?

I have two separate databases on individuals. But these individuals are not both present in the two databases. So I decided to aggregate them into area-level data (such as State-level). One of the ...
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### Car out of route

I have one KML file that describes the movement of a car. Data comes from sensor in the car, contains wrong or noisy measurements. I want to filter the wrong measurements, i.e. throw away the ...