# Questions tagged [hazard]

The hazard rate is the instantaneous rate at which units that have survived until time $t$ die at $t$. The hazard ratio is the ratio of 2 specified hazards.

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### Cox regression baseline risk and interpretation of coefficients

I recently encountered a problem with Cox regression that I couldn't find an answer to (please direct me to the appropriate resources if you know of any). So the problem goes as follows: I have a ...
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### How can a hazard function be negative?

I've been reading through Survival Analysis in R, an ebook that I found for independent study, and have run into a point of confusion. They define the hazard function as follows: where T is whichever ...
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1 vote
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### How to find difference between two hazard ratios (ratio of hazard ratios)

I am reading a meta-analysis and in this paper the authors somehow compared HR from two groups with different treatments in each study. As I know, we can compare outcomes from two groups with ...
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1k views

### How to explain Hazard Ratio in layperson's terms

In the context of a Cox regression, I recently heard someone say that "the hazard ratio of 0.70 between the two treatment groups indicates that, during the whole followup time, of 100 persons in ...
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### In which cases should the time be transformed when plotting the smoothed scaled Schoenfeld residual plot?

I previously asked this question but didn't get any answers, so I'm reposting it now. I aim to address the argument transform = '' in R, particularly concerning the ...
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1 vote
42 views

### Should the curve be around zero when assessing the smoothed scaled Schoenfeld residual plot for proportional hazard assumption?

I'm using the smoothed scaled Schoenfeld residual plot to assess the proportional hazard assumption. I have a decent understanding of what a smoothed scaled Schoenfeld residual plot shows, but I'm ...
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### Does it make sense to convert the Y-axis by exp() on the smooth scaled schoenfeld residual plot?

I posted a question on Stack Overflow. But the question got closed as the person who closed it wrote that it should belong here in Stack Exchange. I'm not sure why but here is the link for the post. I'...
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### How to assess the goodness-of-fit of an extended Cox model?

I'm trying to build an extended Cox hazard model on a dataset with time-varying covariates, using Python's Lifeline package. However, I've a hard time trying to find out how I can assess the goodness-...
1 vote
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### Pooled Hazard Ratio or Crude events (M-H to RR or OR) for mortality outcomes in Meta-Analysis?

I'm performing a MA to estimate the effect of treatment A respect to Placebo (or propensity-matched control group) respect to all-cause death. All the studies included in my MA report both crude ...
43 views

### How do I incorporate background mortality to produce an excess hazard model using flexsurv?

The flexsurv package in R facilitates the use of background mortality estimates to model excess hazard. In the examples I can find (the ...
22 views

### Start of instantaneous hazard rate

I'm looking at survival of organizations, with survival in years. I want to produce an instantaneous hazard plot with a confidence interval. I first used pehaz from ...
50 views

### When should the robust error function in R be used in Cox proportional hazard regressions?

Let's consider a scenario where I compute a HR that appears to violate the proportional hazard assumption according to the cox.zph test, but when plotting the ...
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1 vote
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### How do I interpret the HRs for each time interval computed by survSplit in R?

I’m testing the association between an exposure and outcome. I have performed a Cox proportional hazard model in R and estimated a HR. Both the exposure and the outcome are binary variables, where 1 = ...
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### Return period of vine copula

In the formula for "OR" joint return period of 3-dimensional copula modeling, we need to find C(u,v,w) but when we model using vine, we are only able to obtain the copula C(uv|w). So, how to ...
1 vote
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### Bayesian Approach to Estimating Item Return Probability Given Time Since Sale

I'm attempting to estimate the probability of an item being returned given that X days have passed since the sale, using a Bayesian approach. I can calculate the overall probability of an item being ...
1 vote
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### Getting hazard ratios from a univariate logistic regression model

The authors in the article mention that, The subgroup analysis was conducted using a univariate logistic regression model, fitting separate models for each subgroup to assess the association between ...
30 views

### Interpreting hazard ratio in table

This poster has been making headlines lately due to its subject and conclusions. Specifically, I'm interested in understanding how the hazard ratios are being calculated in this table: For example, ...
1 vote
18 views

### Survival analysis where the total count of different types of events matter?

I'm currently trying to conduct survival analysis where events are not just the binary variables of 1/0 (i.e., did the event happen or not). However, I'm not quite sure how to proceed in this case. My ...
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1 vote
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### Can I use a Hazard Ratio to determine the absolute risk of a population?

I am trying to convert the Hazard Ratio from this paper (Risk of Gastrointestinal Adverse Events Associated With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Weight Loss) to determine the prevalence ...
1 vote
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### How to calculate sample size from hazard ratio?

The marker gene XYX1 being high in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis with higher hazard ratio : 3.5. I want to calculate sample size with 1 - β (power) = 80%, one sided, type I error? ...
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### Handling Informative Censored Data in Comparative Analysis of Cumulative Outcomes Across Groups

Hello Cross Validated community, I am working on a dataset that involves multiple groups undergoing a series of interventions, with the aim to achieve a binary outcome (e.g., success or failure). The ...
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103 views

### What to do with Cox proportional hazards regression, when exposure and outcome does not have the same follow up

I'm working on a cox regression to analyse the association between an exposure and outcome. I also have a start time (time start for follow-up) and end time (time when getting the outcome or censored)....
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### Minimum follow up period survival analysis

Imagin there's a surgery for a disease A that can cause a disease B. The minimum period to diagnose the disease B after the surgery of the disease A are 3 monthts (before that period of time, we can't ...
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### smooth scaled Schoenfeld residual plot - how to interpret the plot which is based on a stratified cox model?

I understand what a Smoothed scaled Schoenfeld residual plot is, and what it shows. Before I go into details with my question, I will provide an example. I use R to code. Here is a cox model: ...
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1 vote
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### Calculating overall survival probability for being a part of a group in Cox regression

I have created a mixed-effects Cox regression in r: This can be created in coxph: ...
1 vote
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### Reweighting hazard ratios

Assume I have two populations (pop 1 and pop 2). I also have three treatments (A, B, C). In population 1, I have $HR_{A vs B}$ In population 2, I have $HR_{A vs B}$ and $HR_{C vs B}$ When I want to ...
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### Illustrating the hazard function across values of an independent continuous varable

I'm running a Cox model in which my main interest is the effect of a continuous independent variable on the hazard of committing crime. I want to illustrate the effect of this variable. For this ...
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### How do you convert hazard ratios to differences in life expectancy?

How do epidemiologists convert hazard ratios to difference in life expectancy? For example, let's say I find that the hazard ratio of all-cause mortality in City A is 1.25 compared to City B. I want ...
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### How to properly order outcomes in tidycmprsk subdistribution hazard (crr)?

This feels like a naive question, but I am a bit confused by the documentation and vignettes that I have found for tidycmprsk and the instructions I have been given for my exercise. I am trying to ...
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### DIfference between hazard ratio and partial hazard in survival analysis

The hazard function in survival analysis is represented as (https://in.mathworks.com/help/stats/cox-proportional-hazard-regression.html): Here the exponential term is termed as hazard ratio as ...
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244 views

### Confusion between hazard ratios and odds ratios

I am getting into survival analysis and am a bit confused about the definition of hazard ratio and odds ratios. This question implies that there is a clear difference between hazard ratios and odds ...
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281 views

### Relationship of incidence rate and hazard function

I like to figure out how I can retrieve an incidence rate based on a hazard function. So background could be that my hazard function models the prob of the event based on the age of a person (t = time ...
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1 vote