# Questions tagged [histogram]

A histogram is a graphical representation of the frequencies of a continuous variable. The variable is divided into bins and a bar is drawn for each bin, proportional to its frequency in the data.

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22 views

### Help with probability distribution fitting [closed]

Using maximum likelihood estimation, I have fitted the following three distribution to my data (normalized wind direction). The distributions don't seem to fit the data very well. Should I transform ...
21 views

### Using $\chi^2$-Distance for Histogram-Comparison with 0-Valued Elements leads to NaNs

I want to compare two histograms by using the $\chi^2$-distance. There is a definition in the OpenCV-library. Also this question gives a lot of insight about this distance-metric. Because i didn't ...
53 views

### Plotting histogram for given ages correctly

I am plotting a histogram with given 'ages': ...
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### Pennsylvania County Voting Anomaly Analysis (Benfords Law violation in the last election)

recently this paper https://www.scribd.com/document/483484973/PA-Voter-Analysis-Young has come out showing Biden's vote count in Allegheny County Pennsylvania has significant deviations from Benford'...
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### Deriving Fisher Information Matrix over a Histogram Structure

I am reading a classic paper by Barron and Risannen, entitled: The Minimum Description Length Principle in Coding and Modeling In this paper they state the following idea: On this point I am ...
72 views

### Least Square Cross Validation for Density Estimation with Histograms

In a 1981 paper by Rudemo an easy to compute expression for the integrated squared error of a histogram relative to the true distribution is derived (Eq. 2.8 of the paper and the last equation in this ...
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### Discrete data: Graphs and skewness

I am studying an introductory course in statistic " Essentials of Statistics". The author mentioned that Histograms are used to represent the frequency distribution of a contiuous data. Then ...
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### Creating values from a normal inverse gaussian (NIG) distribution

I have a vector of empirical observations 'a' containing about 16000 values. empirical data The empirical histogram looks like the following: I'm trying to test, whether the normal inverse gaussian (...
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### Formatting histograms in R

I'm trying to fit Variance-Gamma distribution to empirical data of 1-minute logarithmic returns. In order to visualize the results I plotted together 2 histograms: empirical and theoretical. ('a' is a ...
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### does it make sense to draw a histogram for categorical variables?

Does it make sense to draw a histogram where its x-variable is categorical? I know that normally categorical variables are represented with bar charts, but I am just wondering if in practice it is ...
18 views

### Statistical significance multiple groups categorical distribution

Apologies, am a complete novice. I think this question is about as close as I found. I have a distribution of percentage data for a categorical variable as shown: I want to test for two different ...
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### How to find margin of error for 99% confidence interval for skewed distribution?

Google Sheet of data I have the value and the frequency of the data. As you can see in the data sheet, the count number is quite high, so I am not able to write out the entire list of the data (ex. 2, ...
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### Relationship between Histogram , Scatter plot , Normality , Linearity

I have the following doubt: suppose you have a categorical variable called 'neighborhood' with 20 categorical levels/values ("vila madalena", "mooca", etc). and I want to check ...
107 views

### Error Bars for Histogram with Uncertain Data

Context I have a set of data points $\{x_1, \dots, x_N \}$ along with the respective measurement uncertainties $\{\epsilon_1, \dots, \epsilon_N\}$ in them ($N \approx 100$). These data are basically ...
27 views

### Does a random variable's distribution also carry over to its histogram-estimated probabilities?

If I have a finite sample of a continuous random variable $x$ as a vector containing $N$ observations, then I bucket those observations based on their frequency of appearance into equally-sized bins ...
47 views

### How to merge probability distributions / histograms?

I'm wondering how to create a better predictive distribution based on past conditional events in a stock. For example, suppose I observe that historically after a 5% drop in a stock, tomorrow's ...
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### Confusion about using box models to explain the central limit theorem

A text I'm reading (Freedman, Pisani, Purves - Statistics (2007)) states the central limit theorem as: the probability histogram of sums of numbers from a box converges to the normal curve as the ...
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### Intuition behind unequal class interval histograms

In a histogram with unequal class interval, say for example, the data: ...
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### What's the meaning of “frequency represents area of bars” in histogram?

In some statistics lessons, I have heard that frequency represents area of bars. So I was curious and plotted these numbers: [1, 2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 1, 4, 6, 7, 3, 7, 5, 7, 2, 8, 9, 10, 8, 10] The ...
146 views

### Who invented the “Histogram”?

While going through Wikipedia's article History of statistics I found In 1786 William Playfair (1759-1823) introduced the idea of graphical representation into statistics. He invented the line chart, ...
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### What is the difference between HLC (Histogram of local features) , CSS ( color self-similarity) ans MDST (Max DisSimilarity of Different Templates)

I'm new to computer vision and have been researching for Master thesis purposes in Detection algorithms and the techniques used in each. As I arrived to the point where alot of papers showed the ...
34 views

### Computing mean and sd from a frequency histogram (in R)

On page 4 of this document, there is a frequency distribution (histogram) of some students' math scores. You can access the exact same info. shown on page 4 of this document below (in ...
22 views

### Properties of the diff of a sorted uniformly generated set

I am studying a set of uniformly generated points, more concretely the distance between the points. When the set is unsorted the histrogram shows it is normally distributed and that matches my ...
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### How can I interpret a kernel density plot where x axis is the probability?

I am confused on how to interpret the kernel density estimation (kde) plot given below, which is of the predicted probabilities from my model for class 0 and class 1. What conclusions can I draw from ...
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### Maximum-likelihood histogram from noisy data

Given a sequence of noisy observations $\{x_k\in\mathbb{R}\}$ and a set of thresholds $\{t_i\in\mathbb{R}\}$ we can bin the observations using the thresholds to create a histogram. However, since we ...
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### Approximating a distribution with an integer histogram

Given a distribution $f:[0,a)\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, is there a simple algorithm by which to find a sequence $\{h_i\in\mathbb{N_0}\}$ such that $f(x)$ is approximated by $h_{floor(x)}$ as a histogram ...
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### Reference for the rule of thumb $\sqrt{n}$ for the number of bins of an histogram

Does anyone have an idea where the rule of thumb $\sqrt{n}$ for the number of bins of an histogram come from? I need a reference to put in my article. I remember that rule from my college times, but ...
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### Which statistical tests should I use for this data?

I have been given data from Kickstarter ( Kickstarter is a crowd funding platform that helps people garner funds for their business ideas). The data has about 15,000 rows and about 10 - 15 columns. ...
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### How to sample biased distribution from another distribution?

I have a PSNR histogram distribution for 6k images and I want to sample a few images from this distribution. But as you can see the distribution is right-skewed and the samples will less PSNR values ...
36 views

### Discerning differences in groups with millions of datapoints: is a GLM even valid?

I have a MASSIVE dataset of 22 million shrubs from a basin in the southwest US. I have selected 2 response variables which are both positive continuous variables: Shrub Canopy Volume (cubic meters) &...
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### Freedmans rule to find number of bins

I have a data set that is 30162 rows long. I am trying to split age into bins but I am struggling to understand the concept of the rule with my data set. As a quick examples this is what I did: <...
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### Generating samples from a histogram

I don't quite know how to ask this question or what to search for but I'm certain this method has a name.. I have a uni variate binned distribution, something like x = { 0, 10 , 20 , 30,....} with ...
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### Distribution of urns for non-uniform distribution

Let $X_1,\dots, X_n$ be i.i.d. random variables on a set $X$. Let $j$ be a uniformly random number from $1$ to $n$; define a new random variable  Y(j) = \frac{\left\vert \{i: X_i=X_j\}\right\vert}{...
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### Estimating mean values given a histogram (without using median point)

I have a list of stock trades made by US senators and the exact amount of money they spend on a trade is not disclosed, they only give a range of values. Below is the frequency table for the 8600 ...
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### Non asymptotic error bound for$f(x)=\mathbb{E}[Y|X=x]$

I am considering the following model: $(X_i,Y_i)_{i=1}^n$ are iid random pairs with $X_i\in[0,1]$ and $Y_i\in\mathbf{R}$. Let $f(x)=\mathbb{E}[Y|X=x]$. Consider an estimate $\hat{f}_n$ of $f$. Under ...
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### R histogram of p-values weird (uniform)?

I created a short Monte Carlo script to check how z-values from z-tests and their correspond when I change different parameters. My script is the following. I have a "population" of normal ...
25 views

### Help on understanding these plots

I am very weak in the english language and I need to understand how I can describe my plots. It's the best way for me to learn, understand plots and memorize the phrases. So my first question is, ...
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### Visualizing historical commute times

I am looking for a visualization of travel times for a specific commute route (going from A to B, considering traffic of course), for example in a histogram. I would like to answer the question "how ...
150 views

### Kullback-Leibler Divergence for histograms: How to choose bin size?

So I have two set of data points. To be precise these are measurement of surface areas of some objects using two different methodologies (which could give a different object count and different areas)....
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### How to compare the chi-square distance values obtained from comparing different histogram pairs?

I have a data sequence that is generated from a computer simulation (discrete event simulation). It is a simple sequence of a single state value, e.g., 10 11 12 11 12 13 ...15. It contains N number of ...
151 views

### How to generate random data, that's from Beta distribution with specific density function in R?

So, considering that $\theta = 2$ and density function is $f(x) = \theta x^{\theta - 1}, 0<x<1$ and $0$ anywhere else, how do I generate random data from this particular distribution? Here is ...
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### Create KDE based on Histogram using the weighted KDE approach

In Kernel density estimation with binned data a binned kernel estimator is defined as : $g_n(x) = \frac{1}{nh} \sum_{j=-\infty}^{\infty} n_j K(\frac{x-t_j}{h})$ where $t_j$ denotes the centre of the ...
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### Random Forest: Histograms for the Margins for Different Outcome Classes

I am working with random forests (in R). Is there a way to plot a histogram of the margins of different response outcomes? I have a categorical response variable with three outcomes, and I want to ...
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### binwidths/no. of bins when overlaying two histograms

Should the binwidths for two histograms be same or no. of bins in both histograms be same when they are overlayed for comparison? or there is no correlation? I am comparing histogram of centrality for ...
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### Similar histograms after removing mean and dividing with std

I have four time-series, of a physical quantity (heat flux). When I remove the mean value from my data points Xn = X - mean(X) and divide them with the standard deviation Xn' = Xn/std(Xn) the ...
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### clustering in a histogram [duplicate]

I am using python/numpy to create a histogram as follows: ...
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### Quantifying the similarity or overlap between two discrete probability histograms

I am trying to learn if there's a way to quantify how close two discrete histograms that represent probability distributions (normalized) are. To give an example, I generate two lists of integers in ...
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### Intersection vs Chi-Square for comparing histograms

I've seen lots of examples where chi-square works better. But is there any example of for ex. 3 non-similar histograms where Intersection results in the similarity of histograms but Chi-square results ...