# Questions tagged [histogram]

A histogram is a graphical representation of the frequencies of a continuous variable. The variable is divided into bins and a bar is drawn for each bin, proportional to its frequency in the data.

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### Which correlation variable do we visualize in Histogram, x or y? [closed]

So my research question is there a correlation between Covid-19 death rate and population density. For a scatter plot, my x is population and y is death rate. For a histogram, on the y-axis I will ...
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### How are regression lines calculated for 2D histograms?

I've been looking into how to fit a line to a 2D histogram and have come across different pieces of information which I can't quite piece together. To show what I mean, I want to achieve something ...
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### Negative KL divergence for train_test_split in sklearn for y_train and y_val

So, I am trying to understand if I have fair split of my train and val sets using train_test_split of sklearn, so I decided to run the KL divergence and JS div tests and I get the following results. ...
3k views

### Could any equation have predicted the results of this simulation?

Suppose there is a coin that has a 5% chance of landing on HEADS and a 95% chance of landing on TAILS. Based on a computer simulation, I want to find out the following : The average number of flips ...
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### How to detect non-homogeneity

Below are the samples of NDVI images and belonging histograms. Quite often, there is a mixture of various patterns in the single image that might represent either multiple fields, disease or any other ...
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### How to test if one histogram bin has higher count than expected?

I'm studying the ratio $(A/B)$ of two physical constituents $A$ and $B$ that reside in each sample. It's hypothesized that $A$ and $B$ can "split" not unlike cells - if A duplicates before B ...
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### Mean, Mode, Median of a histogram?

Based on my understandings, I would say for the below histogram that the mode is zero, the mean is between 0 & 1 and the median is 1. I'm I right?
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### About histogram and shape of distribution

Suppose that it was found in a company that the distribution of reviews among reviewers is highly skewed so that a small number of reviewers do most of the reviews while a larger number of reviewers ...
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### Videogame market analysis

I'm looking if there is a name for what I'm trying to do. TLDR: Market contains offers to exchange currency 1 for currency 2. I want to make a histogram showing total volumes of currency1 in specific ...
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### Variance of 2D binned uniform density

I will start off by saying that I am aware of this post, but applying Sheppard's correction in my case would seem to lead to a negative variance; so either I don't understand that post, or I have a ...
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### Is there a simple method to produce a histogram of the Wilson distribution? [closed]

The Wilson score for some observed binomial distribution $(\hat{p},N)$ gives you a confidence interval on $p$. However, I need a histogram over the possible values of $p$. (With a relatively low ...
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### Can a histogram have just one value as its bin in a probability histogram?

On [this link], (http://www.henry.k12.ga.us/ugh/apstat/chapternotes/7supplement.html) there is a histogram where on the x-axis, all the sums of the two dice are there {2, 3, 4, 5, ... 12}, and on the ...
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### Why doesn't this histogram have a "bell curve" shape?

I am looking at the following graphs (in R): n = floor(rnorm(10000, 500, 100)) t = table(n) barplot(n) barplot(t) Does ...
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### How to visualize numerical data with upper and lower bounds?

I have a dataset, containing some trees and the estimated upper and lower bounds of their ages. For example, tree #1 is 10~15 years old, and tree #2 is 13~20 years old, etc. I want to visualize the ...
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### Confused about testing my data for normality

I am starting some quantitative analysis of a dataset. My sample size is just over 100 (approx 110) and before doing the descriptive stats I attempted some normality testing to determine if I should ...
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### Is this graph positively skewed or multimodal?

Looking at this distribution, I originally believed this to be a positively skewed histogram, but on reanalysis, I'm now stuck between if it's a positive skewed histogram or a multimodal histogram, as ...
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### Error (SD) on means of multiple binned datasets?

I manipulate a few datasets and wondering what would be appropriate when calculating the error (standard deviation mostly) Lets say I have 3 datasets (A,B,C) with ranges 1:1000. These datasets are ...
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### Earliest Deviation from uniform distribution [duplicate]

How can I to compute the earliest deviation from a uniform distribution from a heavy tailed distribution.I find that one can do it as follows: max_ix = np.argmax(np.cumsum(hist) - np.sum(hist)*bins[1:]...
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### How to test the goodness of fit for histograms/

There is an histogram, $h$, with user-defined $k = 5$ bins and probabilities $[1/2, 1/3, 1/30, 1/30, 1/10]$ for the each bin. Then $1000$ histograms were simulated. It is required to establish that ...
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### Comparing colors of digital and print (in cloth) images

I want to compare color histograms between a digital photo and its physically printed in cloth (like a tshirt) version. The process is simple: Printing a digital image (with good resolution) in a ...
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### What is the sample size required to estimate a multivariate joint histogram?

The required sample size for estimating a multivariate joint histogram is something that I expect to depend on multiple factors such as the distributional properties of the data-generating process (e....
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### Is this a kernel density plot?

I have long struggled to bring kernel density plots into the "mainstream." See Reading kernel distribution plot vs typical histogram. However, I recently came across a report that pulled off ...
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### Looking for normality with histogram and QQ

I have some data that looks similar to the example picture below. The difference is that the peaks on the histogram are further above the distribution line and the tails of the Q-Q plot are heavier ...
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### Computing histogram bins with insensitivity to domain scale

I have a data set with N values residing in the range [-1, 1]. Assume that N is quite large (1,000 to 10,000). I would like to compute a histogram for this data set with the usual binning requirements ...
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### Graphical construction of normal approximation to histogram

In Statistics by Freedman et al. it is described how to construct a normal approximation for a histogram, as follows: Calculate mean and SD for the histogram (in the image $63.5$ and $3$ inches). ...
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### How to clean data to produce a smooth histogram

Is there any way to 'clean' a set of data to produce a smooth histogram, ie. without overrepresentative bins? Looking for solution in python3. At the moment I have a histogram with overcounted bins: ...
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### histogram vs. kernel in density estimation

Assume we have a problem of estimation of a density $f(x)$ over an interval $[0, 1]$. Can a regular histogram (i.e. with equal-sized bins) be viewed as some kind of a kernel?
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### Comparisons of distributions: How to deal with discrepancies between visual impression and statistical tests (K-S, ranksum)?

I'm having some doubts how to properly compare my data (because of visual discrepancies), represented as histograms. Here's an minimal and representative example, illustrating the data: I measure BMI ...
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### How to match the distribution of one dataset when subsampling from another?

I have two datasets that measure the same variable under different conditions. The first dataset (d1) is much larger (9,000 observations) than the second dataset (d2; 900 observations). A histogram of ...
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### Histograms with Normalized Data?

I have two datasets I am looking to perform some simple visualization on. One dataset is approx. seven times larger than the other. My first step was to compare the distribution of each, and I thought ...
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### Estimate the error bound of a histogram based mean absolute deviation approximation

Given a sequence of numbers $A = a_1, a_2, \cdots, a_n$. One way to calculate the mean absolute deviation of $A$ is by $G(A)= \sum_{i=0}^n |a_i - median(A)|$. yet, there can be an alternative, by ...
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### What statistical test should I use for this analysis where I want to compare the similarity of two histograms and return a single value percentage?

I need some help with what statistical test I should use for my data analysis. I have a Data set A, which is an array of 5000 numbers, ALL of which are zero, and a Data set B, which is an array of ...
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### Is it allowable to use an open interval in a discretized factor?

I have a factor for firm size which is technically a categorical variable. The response values are: 1-49 50-199 200-499 500-9,999 10,000+ I am constructing a histogram of the response distribution. ...
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### How best to display skewed frequency data?

I am counting the number of eggs laid each day by some animals. Most days under my experimental conditions, individuals produce 0 eggs (194/307 observations). I do not want to leave these 0 days out ...
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### Uniform Kernel vs Histogram pdf estimator

I want to know if in general Histogram pdf estimator and the Uniform Kernel density estimator are the same, I have derived following 2 equations but still have trouble wrapping my head around the ...
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### Hypothesis Testing Probability Density Estimates [closed]

Is there a good way to test an probability density estimate against observed data? I know there exist various approaches to probability density estimation and testing individual parameters of density ...
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### Help selecting a correct distribution for this data

I'm a geologist working with some sparse borehole data. The boreholes sample igneous intrusions and we're trying to fit a distribution to the thickness of the intrustion vs frequency (for use in other ...
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### Making a continuous distribution from a discrete histogram

I was handed a discrete histogram of a random variable $x$. How do I generate 2,000 continuous samples from the histogram which represent the original random variable $x$? My first thought is to fit a ...
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### SNR of a collection of waveforms follows the same distribution as an individual waveform

I'm generating some waveforms, produces by picking some $n$ samples from a Gaussian distribution. Not surprisingly, when I plot the sample values (i.e. a histogram with bins being the value of the ...
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### How can I match two distribution to make them not statistically different?

apologies for the weirdly formulated question. I have two distributions, X1 (blue histograms) and Y1 (yellow). They are statistically different. I need to extract a subsample from Y1 (let's call it Y2)...
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### Comparing Mean and standard deviation from a normalized histogram and scipy.stats.lognormal fit

I am trying to fit a lognormal distribution to my experimental Data. The experimental data provides the frequency of occurrence of a certain length. The data is given in the code below. The counts_exp ...
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### Histogram - what constitutes grouped data?

One of the questions on my course asked us to identify what type of data a histogram is used for. Two of the options were continuous or grouped data. The correct answer was continuous as this is the ...
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### Histogram showing twice the probabilities

I have this list of numbers: ...
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### Using $\chi^2$-Distance for Histogram-Comparison with 0-Valued Elements leads to NaNs

I want to compare two histograms by using the $\chi^2$-distance. There is a definition in the OpenCV-library. Also this question gives a lot of insight about this distance-metric. Because i didn't ...
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### Plotting histogram for given ages correctly

I am plotting a histogram with given 'ages': ...
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### Deriving Fisher Information Matrix over a Histogram Structure

I am reading a classic paper by Barron and Risannen, entitled: The Minimum Description Length Principle in Coding and Modeling In this paper they state the following idea: On this point I am ...
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### Least Square Cross Validation for Density Estimation with Histograms

In a 1981 paper by Rudemo an easy to compute expression for the integrated squared error of a histogram relative to the true distribution is derived (Eq. 2.8 of the paper and the last equation in this ...
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### Discrete data: Graphs and skewness

I am studying an introductory course in statistics, Essentials of Statistics. The author mentioned that histograms are used to represent the frequency distribution of a continuous data. Then directly, ...