Questions tagged [histogram]

A histogram is a graphical representation of the frequencies of a continuous variable. The variable is divided into bins and a bar is drawn for each bin, proportional to its frequency in the data.

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What is the sample size required to estimate a multivariate joint histogram?

The required sample size for estimating a multivariate joint histogram is something that I expect to depend on multiple factors such as the distributional properties of the data-generating process (e....
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Are these results contradicting, or can be explained both right? [closed]

I'm sorry to repeat this question here because I did not find any convincing answer anywhere https://mathoverflow.net/questions/395108/can-the-same-dataset-be-described-as-chaotic-pareto-power-law-...
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Is this a kernel density plot?

I have long struggled to bring kernel density plots into the "mainstream." See Reading kernel distribution plot vs typical histogram. However, I recently came across a report that pulled off ...
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Looking for normality with histogram and QQ

I have some data that looks similar to the example picture below. The difference is that the peaks on the histogram are further above the distribution line and the tails of the Q-Q plot are heavier ...
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Computing histogram bins with insensitivity to domain scale

I have a data set with N values residing in the range [-1, 1]. Assume that N is quite large (1,000 to 10,000). I would like to compute a histogram for this data set with the usual binning requirements ...
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Graphical construction of normal approximation to histogram

In Statistics by Freedman et al. it is described how to construct a normal approximation for a histogram, as follows: Calculate mean and SD for the histogram (in the image $63.5$ and $3$ inches). ...
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How to clean data to produce a smooth histogram

Is there any way to 'clean' a set of data to produce a smooth histogram, ie. without overrepresentative bins? Looking for solution in python3. At the moment I have a histogram with overcounted bins: ...
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histogram vs. kernel in density estimation

Assume we have a problem of estimation of a density $f(x)$ over an interval $[0, 1]$. Can a regular histogram (i.e. with equal-sized bins) be viewed as some kind of a kernel?
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Comparisons of distributions: How to deal with discrepancies between visual impression and statistical tests (K-S, ranksum)?

I'm having some doubts how to properly compare my data (because of visual discrepancies), represented as histograms. Here's an minimal and representative example, illustrating the data: I measure BMI ...
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How to match the distribution of one dataset when subsampling from another?

I have two datasets that measure the same variable under different conditions. The first dataset (d1) is much larger (9,000 observations) than the second dataset (d2; 900 observations). A histogram of ...
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Histograms with Normalized Data?

I have two datasets I am looking to perform some simple visualization on. One dataset is approx. seven times larger than the other. My first step was to compare the distribution of each, and I thought ...
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Estimate the error bound of a histogram based mean absolute deviation approximation

Given a sequence of numbers $A = a_1, a_2, \cdots, a_n$. One way to calculate the mean absolute deviation of $A$ is by $G(A)= \sum_{i=0}^n |a_i - median(A)|$. yet, there can be an alternative, by ...
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What statistical test should I use for this analysis where I want to compare the similarity of two histograms and return a single value percentage?

I need some help with what statistical test I should use for my data analysis. I have a Data set A, which is an array of 5000 numbers, ALL of which are zero, and a Data set B, which is an array of ...
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Is it allowable to use an open interval in a discretized factor?

I have a factor for firm size which is technically a categorical variable. The response values are: 1-49 50-199 200-499 500-9,999 10,000+ I am constructing a histogram of the response distribution. ...
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How best to display skewed frequency data?

I am counting the number of eggs laid each day by some animals. Most days under my experimental conditions, individuals produce 0 eggs (194/307 observations). I do not want to leave these 0 days out ...
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Uniform Kernel vs Histogram pdf estimator

I want to know if in general Histogram pdf estimator and the Uniform Kernel density estimator are the same, I have derived following 2 equations but still have trouble wrapping my head around the ...
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Hypothesis Testing Probability Density Estimates [closed]

Is there a good way to test an probability density estimate against observed data? I know there exist various approaches to probability density estimation and testing individual parameters of density ...
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Help selecting a correct distribution for this data

I'm a geologist working with some sparse borehole data. The boreholes sample igneous intrusions and we're trying to fit a distribution to the thickness of the intrustion vs frequency (for use in other ...
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Making a continuous distribution from a discrete histogram

I was handed a discrete histogram of a random variable $x$. How do I generate 2,000 continuous samples from the histogram which represent the original random variable $x$? My first thought is to fit a ...
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SNR of a collection of waveforms follows the same distribution as an individual waveform

I'm generating some waveforms, produces by picking some $n$ samples from a Gaussian distribution. Not surprisingly, when I plot the sample values (i.e. a histogram with bins being the value of the ...
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How can I match two distribution to make them not statistically different?

apologies for the weirdly formulated question. I have two distributions, X1 (blue histograms) and Y1 (yellow). They are statistically different. I need to extract a subsample from Y1 (let's call it Y2)...
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Comparing Mean and standard deviation from a normalized histogram and scipy.stats.lognormal fit

I am trying to fit a lognormal distribution to my experimental Data. The experimental data provides the frequency of occurrence of a certain length. The data is given in the code below. The counts_exp ...
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Histogram - what constitutes grouped data?

One of the questions on my course asked us to identify what type of data a histogram is used for. Two of the options were continuous or grouped data. The correct answer was continuous as this is the ...
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Histogram showing twice the probabilities

I have this list of numbers: ...
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Using $\chi^2$-Distance for Histogram-Comparison with 0-Valued Elements leads to NaNs

I want to compare two histograms by using the $\chi^2$-distance. There is a definition in the OpenCV-library. Also this question gives a lot of insight about this distance-metric. Because i didn't ...
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Plotting histogram for given ages correctly

I am plotting a histogram with given 'ages': ...
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Pennsylvania County Voting Anomaly Analysis (Benfords Law violation in the last election)

recently this paper https://www.scribd.com/document/483484973/PA-Voter-Analysis-Young has come out showing Biden's vote count in Allegheny County Pennsylvania has significant deviations from Benford'...
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Deriving Fisher Information Matrix over a Histogram Structure

I am reading a classic paper by Barron and Risannen, entitled: The Minimum Description Length Principle in Coding and Modeling In this paper they state the following idea: On this point I am ...
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Least Square Cross Validation for Density Estimation with Histograms

In a 1981 paper by Rudemo an easy to compute expression for the integrated squared error of a histogram relative to the true distribution is derived (Eq. 2.8 of the paper and the last equation in this ...
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Discrete data: Graphs and skewness

I am studying an introductory course in statistic " Essentials of Statistics". The author mentioned that Histograms are used to represent the frequency distribution of a contiuous data. Then ...
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Creating values from a normal inverse gaussian (NIG) distribution

I have a vector of empirical observations 'a' containing about 16000 values. empirical data The empirical histogram looks like the following: I'm trying to test, whether the normal inverse gaussian (...
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Formatting histograms in R

I'm trying to fit Variance-Gamma distribution to empirical data of 1-minute logarithmic returns. In order to visualize the results I plotted together 2 histograms: empirical and theoretical. ('a' is a ...
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does it make sense to draw a histogram for categorical variables?

Does it make sense to draw a histogram where its x-variable is categorical? I know that normally categorical variables are represented with bar charts, but I am just wondering if in practice it is ...
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Statistical significance multiple groups categorical distribution

Apologies, am a complete novice. I think this question is about as close as I found. I have a distribution of percentage data for a categorical variable as shown: I want to test for two different ...
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How to find margin of error for 99% confidence interval for skewed distribution?

Google Sheet of data I have the value and the frequency of the data. As you can see in the data sheet, the count number is quite high, so I am not able to write out the entire list of the data (ex. 2, ...
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Relationship between Histogram , Scatter plot , Normality , Linearity

I have the following doubt: suppose you have a categorical variable called 'neighborhood' with 20 categorical levels/values ("vila madalena", "mooca", etc). and I want to check ...
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538 views

Error Bars for Histogram with Uncertain Data

Context I have a set of data points $\{x_1, \dots, x_N \}$ along with the respective measurement uncertainties $\{\epsilon_1, \dots, \epsilon_N\}$ in them ($N \approx 100$). These data are basically ...
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Does a random variable's distribution also carry over to its histogram-estimated probabilities?

If I have a finite sample of a continuous random variable $x$ as a vector containing $N$ observations, then I bucket those observations based on their frequency of appearance into equally-sized bins ...
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How to merge probability distributions / histograms?

I'm wondering how to create a better predictive distribution based on past conditional events in a stock. For example, suppose I observe that historically after a 5% drop in a stock, tomorrow's ...
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Confusion about using box models to explain the central limit theorem

A text I'm reading (Freedman, Pisani, Purves - Statistics (2007)) states the central limit theorem as: the probability histogram of sums of numbers from a box converges to the normal curve as the ...
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Intuition behind unequal class interval histograms

In a histogram with unequal class interval, say for example, the data: ...
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What's the meaning of “frequency represents area of bars” in histogram?

In some statistics lessons, I have heard that frequency represents area of bars. So I was curious and plotted these numbers: [1, 2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 1, 4, 6, 7, 3, 7, 5, 7, 2, 8, 9, 10, 8, 10] The ...
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Who invented the “Histogram”?

While going through Wikipedia's article History of statistics I found In 1786 William Playfair (1759-1823) introduced the idea of graphical representation into statistics. He invented the line chart, ...
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What is the difference between HLC (Histogram of local features) , CSS ( color self-similarity) ans MDST (Max DisSimilarity of Different Templates)

I'm new to computer vision and have been researching for Master thesis purposes in Detection algorithms and the techniques used in each. As I arrived to the point where alot of papers showed the ...
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Computing mean and sd from a frequency histogram (in R)

On page 4 of this document, there is a frequency distribution (histogram) of some students' math scores. You can access the exact same info. shown on page 4 of this document below (in ...
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Properties of the diff of a sorted uniformly generated set [duplicate]

I am studying a set of uniformly generated points, more concretely the distance between the points. When the set is unsorted the histrogram shows it is normally distributed and that matches my ...
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How can I interpret a kernel density plot where x axis is the probability?

I am confused on how to interpret the kernel density estimation (kde) plot given below, which is of the predicted probabilities from my model for class 0 and class 1. What conclusions can I draw from ...
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Maximum-likelihood histogram from noisy data

Given a sequence of noisy observations $\{x_k\in\mathbb{R}\}$ and a set of thresholds $\{t_i\in\mathbb{R}\}$ we can bin the observations using the thresholds to create a histogram. However, since we ...
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Approximating a distribution with an integer histogram

Given a distribution $f:[0,a)\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, is there a simple algorithm by which to find a sequence $\{h_i\in\mathbb{N_0}\}$ such that $f(x)$ is approximated by $h_{floor(x)}$ as a histogram ...
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Reference for the rule of thumb $\sqrt{n}$ for the number of bins of an histogram

Does anyone have an idea where the rule of thumb $\sqrt{n}$ for the number of bins of an histogram come from? I need a reference to put in my article. I remember that rule from my college times, but ...

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