Questions tagged [histogram]

A histogram is a graphical representation of the frequencies of a continuous variable. The variable is divided into bins and a bar is drawn for each bin, proportional to its frequency in the data.

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926 views

Appropriate test for detecting a signal in normally distributed noise

I am doing some signal processing and I have a histogram which has a bell shape when there is only noise in the signal. (I have been advised that this is to be expected due to the central limit ...
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9 views

How to properly plot a histogram with dates using ggplot? [migrated]

I would like to create an interactive histogram with dates on the x-axis. I have used ggplot+ggplotly. I've read I need to use to pass the proper information using the "text=as.character(mydates)&...
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5answers
33k views

How to test if my distribution is multimodal?

When I plot a histogram of my data, it has two peaks: Does that mean a potential multi-modal distribution? I ran the dip.test in R (...
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1answer
141 views

Quantifying the similarity or overlap between two discrete probability histograms

I am trying to learn if there's a way to quantify how close two discrete histograms that represent probability distributions (normalized) are. To give an example, I generate two lists of integers in ...
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0answers
10 views

Uniform Kernel vs Histogram pdf estimator

I want to know if in general Histogram pdf estimator and the Uniform Kernel density estimator are the same, I have derived following 2 equations but still have trouble wrapping my head around the ...
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0answers
947 views

How to correctly scale sum of squared residuals of two different sets of data in order to compare them?

I did numerical simulations of two different systems that returned me N=1000 histograms expressed as $\{x,y,y'\}$, where $x$ is the independent variable, $y=P(x)$ is the probability distribution (...
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39 views

Histogram of noncentral chi-square variable shoots up when the number of histogram cells increases

Consider the random variable defined by: $$y=-8x+108$$ where $x$ follow a non-central chi-square distribution with 1 degree of freedom and a non-centrality parameter equal to 3.5, $x \sim \chi_{1}^{2}(...
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1answer
281 views

Compare distribution to given shapes to find the most similar

I have a multiple comparison problem between some thousands of correlation distributions and given shapes. I have computed pair-wise correlation for a given set of gene expresion data, and I have ...
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1answer
35 views

Hypothesis Testing Probability Density Estimates [closed]

Is there a good way to test an probability density estimate against observed data? I know there exist various approaches to probability density estimation and testing individual parameters of density ...
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1answer
200 views

Which regression model for percentage data with many zeros and ones?

I am analysing the share of a tree species at different forest locations. The data I am using is in percentage of the total species composition and I am modelling it based on the climatic probability ...
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1answer
1k views

Bhattacharyya distance for three histograms

There is a paper “Auto White Balance Based on the Similarity of Chromaticity Histograms” mention about automatic white balance. One of the key point of this algorithm is how to measure the similarity ...
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18 views

Help selecting a correct distribution for this data

I'm a geologist working with some sparse borehole data. The boreholes sample igneous intrusions and we're trying to fit a distribution to the thickness of the intrustion vs frequency (for use in other ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the purpose of multiplying by the difference between the midpoints of two bins in this recipe?

While browsing for information on how I might plot a fitted normal curve over a histogram, I found the following: http://www.statmethods.net/graphs/density.html There is a line I don't fully ...
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1answer
372 views

constructing probability density distributions out of cumulative data of bins and counts

We have some set of data which has been already processed elsewhere and now contains bins with unequal size and counts of occurrence within each bin (around 8-10 bins, with approximately log-like ...
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2answers
40 views

Making a continuous distribution from a discrete histogram

I was handed a discrete histogram of a random variable $x$. How do I generate 2,000 continuous samples from the histogram which represent the original random variable $x$? My first thought is to fit a ...
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0answers
9 views

SNR of a collection of waveforms follows the same distribution as an individual waveform

I'm generating some waveforms, produces by picking some $n$ samples from a Gaussian distribution. Not surprisingly, when I plot the sample values (i.e. a histogram with bins being the value of the ...
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1answer
19 views

How can I match two distribution to make them not statistically different?

apologies for the weirdly formulated question. I have two distributions, X1 (blue histograms) and Y1 (yellow). They are statistically different. I need to extract a subsample from Y1 (let's call it Y2)...
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19 views

Comparing Mean and standard deviation from a normalized histogram and scipy.stats.lognormal fit

I am trying to fit a lognormal distribution to my experimental Data. The experimental data provides the frequency of occurrence of a certain length. The data is given in the code below. The counts_exp ...
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2answers
78 views

Histogram - what constitutes grouped data?

One of the questions on my course asked us to identify what type of data a histogram is used for. Two of the options were continuous or grouped data. The correct answer was continuous as this is the ...
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2answers
4k views

How to better plot and compare overlapping histograms?

I want to compare the distribution of 3 different time spans: So I plot the histograms together, along with the model curve. But I'm afraid that overlapping histograms makes each hard to see. The ...
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9 views

What is the difference between HLC (Histogram of local features) , CSS ( color self-similarity) ans MDST (Max DisSimilarity of Different Templates)

I'm new to computer vision and have been researching for Master thesis purposes in Detection algorithms and the techniques used in each. As I arrived to the point where alot of papers showed the ...
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1answer
269 views

Error Bars for Histogram with Uncertain Data

Context I have a set of data points $\{x_1, \dots, x_N \}$ along with the respective measurement uncertainties $\{\epsilon_1, \dots, \epsilon_N\}$ in them ($N \approx 100$). These data are basically ...
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1answer
633 views

How to evaluate a histogram?

Let's say I have the histogram above which reports performances of some neural networks. The y axis is the bin size, while the x axis is the error, so low errors = high performance. Out of these 15 ...
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2answers
39 views

Histogram showing twice the probabilities

I have this list of numbers: ...
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1answer
178 views

downsampling a kde / combining kde and histogram

I'm calculating a KDE of one parameter (y, particle density) in bins of another parameter (x, distance from the origin). At ...
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1answer
61 views

Using $\chi^2$-Distance for Histogram-Comparison with 0-Valued Elements leads to NaNs

I want to compare two histograms by using the $\chi^2$-distance. There is a definition in the OpenCV-library. Also this question gives a lot of insight about this distance-metric. Because i didn't ...
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1answer
60 views

Plotting histogram for given ages correctly

I am plotting a histogram with given 'ages': ...
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1answer
74 views

Deriving Fisher Information Matrix over a Histogram Structure

I am reading a classic paper by Barron and Risannen, entitled: The Minimum Description Length Principle in Coding and Modeling In this paper they state the following idea: On this point I am ...
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141 views

Pennsylvania County Voting Anomaly Analysis (Benfords Law violation in the last election)

recently this paper https://www.scribd.com/document/483484973/PA-Voter-Analysis-Young has come out showing Biden's vote count in Allegheny County Pennsylvania has significant deviations from Benford'...
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95 views

Least Square Cross Validation for Density Estimation with Histograms

In a 1981 paper by Rudemo an easy to compute expression for the integrated squared error of a histogram relative to the true distribution is derived (Eq. 2.8 of the paper and the last equation in this ...
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2answers
2k views

How to find the threshold between two histograms at fixed false positive rate?

I have two histograms with equal bin size that lie in the same general range. You can imagine them looking like this example I've borrowed from https://mpatacchiola.github.io/blog/2016/11/12/the-...
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1answer
64 views

Discrete data: Graphs and skewness

I am studying an introductory course in statistic " Essentials of Statistics". The author mentioned that Histograms are used to represent the frequency distribution of a contiuous data. Then ...
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0answers
18 views

Creating values from a normal inverse gaussian (NIG) distribution

I have a vector of empirical observations 'a' containing about 16000 values. empirical data The empirical histogram looks like the following: I'm trying to test, whether the normal inverse gaussian (...
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1answer
78 views

Formatting histograms in R

I'm trying to fit Variance-Gamma distribution to empirical data of 1-minute logarithmic returns. In order to visualize the results I plotted together 2 histograms: empirical and theoretical. ('a' is a ...
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4answers
42k views

Comparing two histograms using Chi-Square distance

I want to compare two images of faces. I calculated their LBP-histograms. So now I need to compare these two histograms and get something that will tell how much these histograms are equal (0 - 100%). ...
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43 views

does it make sense to draw a histogram for categorical variables?

Does it make sense to draw a histogram where its x-variable is categorical? I know that normally categorical variables are represented with bar charts, but I am just wondering if in practice it is ...
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1answer
734 views

draw histogram by hand and then calculate probability density function from that

I have an array of data - arr = c(1,2,3,4,5,6,1,2,3,4). I draw a histogram and get the following graph The frequency of 1,2,3,4 is going to be 2 for each of those ...
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0answers
55 views

How to find margin of error for 99% confidence interval for skewed distribution?

Google Sheet of data I have the value and the frequency of the data. As you can see in the data sheet, the count number is quite high, so I am not able to write out the entire list of the data (ex. 2, ...
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21 views

Statistical significance multiple groups categorical distribution

Apologies, am a complete novice. I think this question is about as close as I found. I have a distribution of percentage data for a categorical variable as shown: I want to test for two different ...
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5answers
278k views

R - QQPlot: how to see whether data are normally distributed

I have plotted this after I did a Shapiro-Wilk normality test. The test showed that it is likely that the population is normally distributed. However, how to see this "behaviour" on this plot? ...
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0answers
61 views

Relationship between Histogram , Scatter plot , Normality , Linearity

I have the following doubt: suppose you have a categorical variable called 'neighborhood' with 20 categorical levels/values ("vila madalena", "mooca", etc). and I want to check ...
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2answers
437 views

Can I use kernel density estimation when I only have histogram data, not the raw values?

I'm using R, but the density function requires the actual samples, but I only have the histogram data. Can I still use kernel density estimation, or is there a better tool for this?
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1answer
29 views

Does a random variable's distribution also carry over to its histogram-estimated probabilities?

If I have a finite sample of a continuous random variable $x$ as a vector containing $N$ observations, then I bucket those observations based on their frequency of appearance into equally-sized bins ...
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1answer
76 views

How to merge probability distributions / histograms?

I'm wondering how to create a better predictive distribution based on past conditional events in a stock. For example, suppose I observe that historically after a 5% drop in a stock, tomorrow's ...
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1answer
18 views

Confusion about using box models to explain the central limit theorem

A text I'm reading (Freedman, Pisani, Purves - Statistics (2007)) states the central limit theorem as: the probability histogram of sums of numbers from a box converges to the normal curve as the ...
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0answers
297 views

Who invented the “Histogram”?

While going through Wikipedia's article History of statistics I found In 1786 William Playfair (1759-1823) introduced the idea of graphical representation into statistics. He invented the line chart, ...
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1answer
280 views

What's the meaning of “frequency represents area of bars” in histogram?

In some statistics lessons, I have heard that frequency represents area of bars. So I was curious and plotted these numbers: [1, 2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 1, 4, 6, 7, 3, 7, 5, 7, 2, 8, 9, 10, 8, 10] The ...
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1answer
180 views

Comparing sets of noisy discontinuous curves / histograms

I have a dataset composed of measurements of signal intensity along a line; visually they look roughly like the right half of this: Each sample is a discontinuous "curve" composed of roughly 600 ...
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1answer
36 views

Computing mean and sd from a frequency histogram (in R)

On page 4 of this document, there is a frequency distribution (histogram) of some students' math scores. You can access the exact same info. shown on page 4 of this document below (in ...

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