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Questions tagged [history]

Questions about the history of statistics.

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1answer
86 views

Who invented the independence notation $\perp \!\!\! \perp$?

This is more of a historical question: who invented the notation $\perp \!\!\! \perp$ for denoting (conditional) independence?
6
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1answer
86 views

Who invented the hazard function?

The hazard function or instantaneous failure rate is very popular in survival analysis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Failure_rate $$\lambda(t) = \dfrac{f(t)}{1-F(t)}.$$ However, I cannot find a ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Who were the first statisticians in the USA, and in the world, in two different cases…?

Who were the first statisticians in the USA, and in the world, in two different cases, to be awarded a statistics PhD degree and what were the corresponding award years? Note: The discipline of ...
18
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1answer
396 views

What's the history of box plots, and how did the “box and whiskers” design evolve?

Many sources date the classic "box plot" design to John Tukey and his "schematic plot" of 1970. The design seems to have stayed relatively static since then, with Edward Tufte's cut-down version of ...
11
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1answer
118 views

Why is $r$ used to denote correlation?

Why was the symbol $r$ chosen to denote Pearson's product moment correlation?
2
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1answer
45 views

How did R-square get its name? [duplicate]

How did R-square get its name? I understand how its calculated and interpreted, but I do not understand the r and square part of it.
0
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1answer
57 views

When was the first time that logistic regression was used to forecast an unknown outcome?

Logistic regression is originally used to predict probabilities of a binary response or further used to forecast the binary response for unknown responses based on a test data set. I was wondering ...
3
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0answers
184 views

How were statistical distributions discovered?

Let me start, that i know that it's not very difficult to generate a probability distribution. If one takes any positive integrable function and normalizes it, this results in a probability density. ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

How was statistics performed before computers?

What was the general approach to performing statistics before calculations were fully computerised (i.e. before both calculation and memory were managed by computer)? I understand the question could ...
7
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0answers
257 views

In Random Forest, why is a random subset of features chosen at the node level rather than at the tree level?

My Question: Why does random forest consider random subsets of features for splitting at the node level within each tree rather than at the tree level? Background: This is something of a history ...
0
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0answers
38 views

What is the main contribution of “Donoho and Johnstone” school in Statistics?

This is a question about the history of Theoretical Statistics. I recently read the book "Asymptotics in Statistics" by L. Le Cam and G. Yang. In the preface, they mentioned the book did not cover the ...
0
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0answers
18 views

ARIMA: origin or derivation [duplicate]

It is actually history question. How was ARIMA found? What was before ARIMA? I searched many websites and wikipedia but no one mentions paper or the scientist behind ARIMA? Thanks.
17
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2answers
3k views

Why was the letter Q chosen in Q-learning?

Why the letter Q was chosen in the name of Q-learning? Most letters are chosen as an abbreviation, such as $\pi$ standing for policy and $v$ stands for value. But I don't think Q is an abbreviation ...
1
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1answer
40 views

In hypothesis testing, why is $1-\beta$ called the “power of a test”?

What is the reason behind the name "power of a test"? The use of the word "power" confuses me.
29
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2answers
745 views

Who first used/invented p-values?

I am attempting to write a series of blog posts on p-values and I thought it would be interesting to go back to where it all started - which appears to be Pearson's 1900 paper. If you are familiar ...
6
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2answers
1k views

Etymology of “Adam” algorithm for gradient descent

What is the history behind the choice of the name "Adam" as used in Adam: A Method for Stochastic Optimization?
4
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1answer
471 views

What is the origin of the “receiver operating characteristic” (ROC) terminology?

No apologies: I have not attempted to research this (beyond reviewing the list of questions CV provided that may have answered this query). I taught this in class last week for diagnosing logistic ...
2
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1answer
94 views

Was logistic regression based on Boltzmann distribution from statistical mechanics?

Ever since seeing the logistic distribution for the first time many years ago, I always thought of it as an application of the Boltzmann distribution. Whoever developed it may had seen the Boltzmann ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

Why “Honestly” in Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD)?

Why is the word "Honestly" in "Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference"? It seems unusual. Most statistical procedures are developed with the intent to give an "honest" answer. Why is that word ...
5
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0answers
55 views

Why is the letter $n$ traditionally used to denote sample size?

Question basically in title. I am just curious if anyone has any historical references that point to the earliest usages of this notation.
1
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1answer
62 views

Were there alternatives In the 1950s to the logistic function for classification?

I would like to know why logistic function is chosen for classification. After reading the original paper developing logistic regression by David Cox, I can understand the benefits of using the ...
16
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6answers
504 views

How could I have discovered the normal distribution?

What was the first derivation of the normal distribution, can you reproduce that derivation and also explain it within its historical context? I mean, if humanity forgot about the normal ...
1
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0answers
48 views

What is the story of “$n-1$” in the denominator of an estimated variance? [duplicate]

In the book "Numerical Recipes in C" there is said that there is a long story about why the denominator of variance is $N-1$ instead of $N$. If you have never heard that story, you may consult any ...
17
votes
1answer
396 views

When was the word “bias” coined to mean $\mathbb{E}[\hat{\theta}-\theta]$?

When was the word "bias" coined to mean $\mathbb{E}[\hat{\theta}-\theta]$? The reason why I'm thinking about this right now is because I seem to recall Jaynes, in his Probability Theory text, ...
32
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2answers
5k views

Who invented stochastic gradient descent?

I'm trying to understand the history of Gradient descent and Stochastic gradient descent. Gradient descent was invented in Cauchy in 1847.Méthode générale pour la résolution des systèmes d'équations ...
7
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2answers
199 views

Why do some statistics symbols have a “squared”, e.g. Variance $\sigma^2$, “R squared” $R^2$ or heritability $H^2$

I sometimes encounter symbols in statistics whose symbol carries a "squared". In other areas, like for example mechanics, you give the quantity you are interested in a normal letter and then define ...
0
votes
1answer
225 views

How did backpropagation solve the “exclusive-or” problem?

From wikipedia - "A key advance was Werbos's (1975) backpropagation algorithm that effectively solved the exclusive-or problem" My understanding of the backprop algorithm is its an efficient way to ...
3
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2answers
76 views

Does anybody know the origin of the idea of there being a population and a sample?

I don't know if this kind of question is okay to ask on this website.
7
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1answer
534 views

Who is the father(or mother) of the linear least squares analysis as we know it?

Background: The least-squared error fit has been around for some time. Laplace, P. S. "Des méthodes analytiques du Calcul des Probabilités." Ch. 4 in Théorie analytique des probabilités, Livre 2, ...
14
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1answer
643 views

The origin of the Wilkinson-style notation such as (1|id) for random effects in mixed models formulae in R

Model formulae in R such as y ~ x + a*b + c:d are based on the so called Wilkinson notation: Wilkinson and Rogers 1973, Symbolic Description of Factorial Models ...
1
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0answers
157 views

Should contingency tables be called “frequency tables”?

Question: Should contingency tables be called frequency tables instead? Context: I am very new to the concept of contingency tables, so please be aware that there is a lot of naiveté in this question....
9
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2answers
523 views

Whence the beta distribution?

As I'm sure everyone here knows already, the PDF of the Beta distribution $X \sim B(a,b)$ is given by $f(x) = \frac{1}{B(a,b)}x^{a-1}(1-x)^{b-1}$ I've been hunting all over the place for an ...
5
votes
1answer
87 views

Who was the pioneer behind joint normal distributions

I tried googling, but no luck in finding it. Who was the one to pioneer these ideas? Also, I'm trying to find when Gauss first started doing some real pioneering work on normal distributions.
29
votes
6answers
3k views

Why is the expected value named so?

I understand how we get 3.5 as the expected value for rolling a fair 6-sided die. But intuitively, I can expect each face with equal chance of 1/6. So shouldn't the expected value of rolling a die ...
15
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2answers
252 views

Why is there -1 in beta distribution density function?

Beta distribution appears under two parametrizations (or here) $$ f(x) \propto x^{\alpha} (1-x)^{\beta} \tag{1} $$ or the one that seems to be used more commonly $$ f(x) \propto x^{\alpha-1} (1-x)^{...
22
votes
2answers
5k views

Who invented the decision tree?

I'm trying to trace who invented the decision tree data structure and algorithm. In the Wikipedia entry on decision tree learning there is a claim that "ID3 and CART were invented independently at ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Who first used a bar graph of means?

I've read a lot about Playfair and the history of graphics. However, I have not discovered who was the first to create the now popular yet information-poor bar graph of means. Anybody know?
3
votes
0answers
139 views

The origin of Cohen`s d variance formula

The measure of effect size called the Cohen's $d$ is given by $(\bar{X}_1-\bar{X}_2)/s_p$ in which $\bar{X}_i$ is the mean of group $i$ and $s_p$ is the pooled standard deviation. In some references,...
2
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0answers
47 views

Was BaiduTrans the first scalable deployment of Neural Machine Translation?

I read these two tweets written on 2016-12-15 by Andrew Ng: Strong desire for global content made China 1st to develop Neural Machine Translation. US lucky to have so much english content […] ...
16
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2answers
4k views

Were generative adversarial networks introduced by Jürgen Schmidhuber?

I read on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generative_adversarial_networks : [Generative adversarial networks] were introduced by Ian Goodfellow et al in 2014. but Jurgen Schmidhuber claims to have ...
25
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3answers
974 views

The origin of the term “regularization”

When I introduce concepts to my students, I often find it fun to tell them where the terminology originates ("regression", for example, is a term with an interesting origin). I haven't been able to ...
1
vote
1answer
391 views

Kalman filter has a frequentist or bayesian origin?

Following this not-very-formal-discussion here, a question raised in my head: is Kalman filter originally a frequentist or a bayesian tool? I know that many statistical tools can be interpreted from ...
23
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3answers
683 views

History of uninformative prior theory

I am writing a short theoretical essay for a Bayesian Statistics course (in an Economics M.Sc.) on uninformative priors and I am trying to understand which are the steps in the development of this ...
2
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3answers
119 views

Who is credited with inventing the term “high dimensional data”?

Title says it all, who is credited with inventing the term "high dimensional data"?
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0answers
111 views

Question about some of Sir Francis Galton's table in his book

n Sir Francis Galton's book, "Natural Inheritance" (found here: www.mugu.com/galton/books/natural-inheritance/pdf/galton-nat-inh-1up-clean.pdf) in particular table 12 and 13 on page 209 & pg 210 I ...
3
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2answers
138 views

What academic paper introduces CNNs in deep learning?

I am trying to find a source for which academic paper introduced CNNs in deep learning.
3
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1answer
478 views

Mann-Whitney U Test Definition of U

What does U stand for in Mann-Whitney U Test? I can't seem to find the definition of "U" in any site.
2
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0answers
26 views

Who deserves credit for simple activation function in ANNs

McCulloch and Pitts (43) are often credited with inventing the Binary Threshold Unit later used in the Perceptron. Who first came up with linear/sigmoid/tanh units?
6
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the origin of the autoencoder neural networks?

I searched on Google, Wikipedia, Google scholar, and more, but I could not find the origin of Autoencoders. Perhaps it's one of those concepts that evolved very gradually, and it's impossible to trace ...
6
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1answer
111 views

How did Likert calculate sigma values in his original 1932 paper?

The five-point response list (e.g. "strongly approve"; "approve"; "undecided"; "disapprove", "strongly disapprove") for gathering data about attitudes - commonly but perhaps incorrectly called a ...