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Questions tagged [hypothesis-testing]

Hypothesis testing assesses whether data are inconsistent with a given hypothesis rather than being an effect of random fluctuations.

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Combined reliability for statistically independent tests/measurements

I'm perplexed by this statement in Wikipedia article, 'Consilience': "Statistically, if three different tests are each 90% reliable when they give a positive result, a positive result from all ...
Jon Bragdon's user avatar
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Hypothesis tests for averages - derivation of distribution of z test and t test statistics

When testing for averages the z-test and t-test both have the same form of test statistic $T$: $$T = \frac{\bar{X} - \mu_0}{\text{se}(\bar{X})}$$ In the former the known population standard deviation $...
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Help for a probability test comparing presence/absence of expected number between two entities

I have a probability problem I don't know how to solve. In that problem I have a genome of a VirusA with 100 genes for which I know 20/100 are unique to this virus. In the other end, I have another ...
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Why is my pvalue for chisquared test so high?

I am sampling from values = [0, 1] with prob = [.25, .75]. I obtain 25019 zeros and 74981 ones. Yet, by chisquared test results in the following: statistic=0.0196, pvalue=0.889 This doesn't seem to ...
user2330624's user avatar
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Measuring statistical significance of comparison results of two models with an imperfect classifier

I have a classifier with 87% accuracy for determining which of the outputs from two text generation models is closer in style to another sample text that is from some target author. Using this ...
doij790's user avatar
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Recipes for combining multiple null-hypothesis tests

I have two questions about hypothesis testing: Is there one or multiple generic recipes for combining tests together? Some procedure that would produce a new better test $T_\star$ from two tests $T_1$...
Guillaume Dehaene's user avatar
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What type of test should I use for paired categorical data?

Somewhat similar questions have been asked here and here, but none of the other answers are really applicable in my case. I have a group of people, where in Year 1 everybody is sick. Here I have only ...
sdlaa's user avatar
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Is there a way to statistically compare the standard deviation of two distributions?

Suppose that a set of 100 items are responded to under two different conditions. Instead of comparing the means, is it possible to compare other things about the distribution of responses, for ...
Dave's user avatar
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The F-test and the t-test reject the null hypothesis while the KS test and the Chi-Squared test do not

This is a follow-up question to How can the F-test reject the null hypothesis while the KS test does not?. Let's consider I perform the following tests: Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test), ...
Ommo's user avatar
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Statistical Inference on Samples vs Populations

I am looking at this question Statistical inference when the sample "is" the population where the following analysis is given: User 1: "Treat the population data as a sample and assume ...
hungryhungryhypothesis's user avatar
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How to show that many functions (a hundred, a thousand) have the same shape an distribution of values over an interval?

I have functions that on iterval [0,1] all seem to look like this: i.e. they have a zero around 0.4 +ve derivative from zero to 0.4 and around zero or slightly negative derivative up to 1. I plan to ...
ufghd34's user avatar
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understanding fisheries model output tag and release

I am reviewing (for myself) a publication that has analysed data from an experiment to see what effect underwater seismic has on catchability of lobsters. de Lestang et al (2024) Fisheries Research ...
Andrew Halford's user avatar
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Hypothesis Test on Whole Population? [closed]

Although this question was discussed here Do we need hypothesis testing when we have all the population? , I wanted to get some second opinions on this topic. I have the following set up for some ...
hungryhungryhypothesis's user avatar
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3 answers
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Can hypothesis testing be done on two points? [closed]

I have the following set up for some island (data is available for each individual islander and the entire population is available): Year 2000 : Total Adult Population: 260,000; Number of Healthy ...
hungryhungryhypothesis's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does one develop an intuitive understanding of statistical methods and the ability to "know" which test to use, why, and how to interpret results [closed]

This is not a mathematical or coding question. Apologies if this is not the forum for this and please let me know if I need to ask this somewhere else. I have a masters degree in data science and I ...
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1 answer
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ANOVA finding a main effect prevents inflation of Type I error rate

In the (free) book Understanding Statistics and Experimental Design, section 6.3, they say '...ANOVA offers a second trick. If we rejected the null hypothesis, it is appropriate to compare pairs of ...
Quinn Culver's user avatar
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Consistency of a test - convergence of quantile

I have given statistical model $((0,1)^n, \mathcal{B}(0,1)^n,\mathcal{P}_n)$, where $\mathcal{P}_n=\{ P_{\theta}^{\otimes n} \ |\ \theta \in (0, \infty) \}$ and each $P_{\theta}$ has density function $...
tychonovs-scholar's user avatar
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1 answer
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What criterion to use to compare multiple correlations of binary variables?

I have $N$ definitions of certain properties of countries (for example, if the country is "democratic", "totalitarian" etc.), and want to test how consistently different people ...
Daigaku no Baku's user avatar
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Issues with Detecting Negative Change in AR(1) Model Using CPAT Library

I'm currently working on evaluating the empirical power of the CUSUM, Rényi CUSUM, and Erdős-Darling tests for detecting change points in AR(1) models, specifically focusing on changes in the mean. ...
Aouissaoui's user avatar
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Appropriate way to correct for multiple comparisons in this case

I am trying to compare the performance of an optimisation algorithm on different objective functions. The functions can vary in their form (4 different types) and dimension. I would like to first ...
ufghd34's user avatar
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Power of One Sided t-test

Let $X_1, \ldots, X_n$ be a sample from $N(\mu, \sigma^2)$ for unknown $\mu \in \mathbb{R}$ and unknown $\sigma > 0$. Fix $\mu_0 \in \mathbb{R}$. The one-sided hypothesis is $H_0: \mu \leqslant \...
温泽海's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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Related low p-values that do not meet statistically significant thresholds

If I were to have multiple related measures, each with "low" p-values that do not quite meet the threshold of significance, could the fact that multiple measures produce a general trend with ...
Jaxton Winder's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
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Looking for a statistical test for significance of association between a treatment and non-mutually exclusive categories

I am looking for a statistical test which will give a p value for the association between a treatment and two potentially co-occurring labels: I have two categories of cells: state A and state B. A ...
Richard's user avatar
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How the combined test under Fisher's method is generally stronger than individual tests, mathematically?

I have gone through the definition of Fisher's method in several materials but it is unclear how Fisher's method is stronger than individual tests. I guess it is not always the case, i.e., there are ...
fermented_bean's user avatar
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2 answers
44 views

Test whether my new method's type I error rate correctly matches chosen alpha

I am testing two different methods for hypothesis testing, bootstrapped likelihood ratio tests, and likelihood ratio tests assuming an asymptotic distribution. I would like to see if the number of ...
A Friendly Fish's user avatar
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Testing equality of multiple proportions in mixing problems

There are two lakes A (43000 cubic feet) and B (30000 cubic feet). A factory dumps waste matter into both lakes. A measurement yields three types of pollutants a, b, c. The percentage of the lakes ...
user419655's user avatar
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Paired Non-parametric test with more than 3 groups but just two timepoints

I may not have found the right term to search for, so I am asking what might be a straightforward question: Assume we have an experiment with paired non-normal distributed data, called "Pre" ...
StrugglingStatisticEnthusiast's user avatar
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1 answer
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ML V REML for Hypothesis Testing

I am curious about doing hypothesis testing with REML values via a likelihood ratio test, or whatever test would make sense for REML values, but these two highly upvoted answers to existing cross ...
A Friendly Fish's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
51 views

Impact of sample size on metric lift

Assume we ran three randomized user split AB experiments exp_1, exp_2, exp_3 one after the other. All three had the exact same treatments & control. Exp_1 was ran for 2 weeks during 06/01-06/14 . ...
bp0308's user avatar
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Combining Data from Multiple Participants for Statistical Analysis of a Facial Expression Memory Task

Context of the Query: I am working on a project involving a memory task for facial expressions, consisting of two phases: Encoding Phase: In this phase, participants are exposed to 8 virtual ...
StupefiedByYou's user avatar
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Equivalent of one-tailed Fisher's exact test for enrichment of the diagonal in 3x3 contingency table?

I have 2 ordinal variables A and B with 3 levels each (e.g. "down", "no change", and "up"). I want to know whether the up/down changes indicated by A and B are consistent ...
Ryan C. Thompson's user avatar
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Reporting significance of fixed effects in clmms - when to use ANODE tables?

I am working on some mixed effects models for ordinal outcomes using clmm. I have settled on my final model, and now want to present the findings. On reading around, I see the use of ANODE tables both ...
Tiptoe's user avatar
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Problem regarding False discovery rate correction for multiple comparison

I am conducting research to find association of a gene with a disease. It's a case-control study. I have divided the cases into groups A and B based on genotype and controls into groups C and D. I ...
Confused_biologist's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
133 views

Non-parametric one-sample mean test for a bounded variable (based on Chebyshev's inequality?)

The problem I have $x_1, \ldots , x_n$ i.i.d. draws from r.v. $X$ such that $0 \leq X \leq 1$, but I can't make any other assumptions about the distribution. I want to test the null hypothesis that $E(...
Martin Modrák's user avatar
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What is the appropriate statistical test in this scenario?

I work with a particular genus of plants where there have been many instances where what was once considered a species is now considered to be a synonym of another species. I am interested in ...
Serge's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How can I show statistically that one of my replicates is likely contaminated?

I have a dataset that looks like the below: five replicate samples, each of which is composed of 4 different fractions that sum to 100%. The fifth sample clearly looks visually distinct from the other ...
Dubukay's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
156 views

Are there alternative statistics to a p-value in NHST?

Sometimes, when the logic of p-value is explained and motivated, it happens in the following way: The concept of a random sample is introduced, together with the need to consider the possibility that ...
Sam's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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Is it possible for some p-values to be impossible? (because statistic generated by parametric bootstrap is mostly the same value.)

I am using a parametric bootstrap/monte carlo hypothesis testing method to generate the null distribution of the log likelihood ratio statistic. However, I am worried I might be doing it wrong ...
A Friendly Fish's user avatar
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0 answers
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Apply the Breusch-Pagan to uncover the source of variance in the data

For my research I am trying to uncover if the variance of my variable of interest is correlated with one of my independent variables. Let $ x $ be the independent variable of interest and $ m $ be the ...
Rogerio Ribeiro's user avatar
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0 answers
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Difference in means and variances of dependent samples

I am performing a simulation study where different values of an exposure X are repeatedly assigned to the same individual (200x in a sample of >10000 people). The way that assignment is done is ...
JuM24's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
147 views

Why do we compute the standard deviation of the proportion using the value assumed under the null hypothesis?

In type 2 error computation, why do we compute the standard deviation using the value assumed under the null hypothesis even if we provide the alternative hypothesis as possible true value? If in null ...
inhjop's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
344 views

confidence interval and rejection

Assume I have a data sample $X_{1}, \dots X_{n}$ from a normal distribution. Then, we consider the following hypothesis $$ H_0: \quad \mu = \mu_{0} $$ and alternative $$ H_1: \quad \mu \neq \mu_{0} $$ ...
ABK's user avatar
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1 vote
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What is correct test to investigate difference between two conditions with repeated measures per subject?

I am having trouble deciding what statistical test I should use for my data. I have 5 subjects who rated attractiveness of 20 objects and 20 sounds of the objects on a scale of 1-5. I would like to ...
user9361's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
28 views

Testing the effect of a continious IV on DV, in order to explain group differences

I would like to ask a question regarding an analysis I’m planning and it might be a basic question so, apologies in advane.... To describe the situation: There are two groups of participants in my ...
gfndngo's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
114 views

How to perform a joint significance test for multiple coefficients across several regression models?

I have 10 regression models, each regressing a different dependent variable $ y_i $ (for $ i = 1, 2, \ldots, 10 $) on the same independent variable $ x $. Each model produces a coefficient for $ x $, ...
Econlover's user avatar
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0 answers
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Appropriate Test for Measuring Change in Event Occurrence Over Time (RStudio)

I want to see if a training programme delivered to organisations to reduce the rate at which an event occurs actually has the intended effect of reducing said occurrence. Each organisation that is ...
girl-what's user avatar
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0 answers
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What test should I use for Weighted Mean Proportions?

I want to know if the "weighted mean proportion" of a racial group in the organization (overall) is significantly different from the "weighted mean proportion" of the group within ...
Raf_97's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Evaluating the Validity of Election Results

In a suspicious election involving 5 candidates, the announced votes for each candidate are a multiple of 3. The chance of all five numbers being a multiple of 3 is only 0.41%. Therefore, some people ...
Amin's user avatar
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0 answers
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Unbiased test for homogeneity of means of exponenential samples

Given $K$ independent samples of $Y_{i1},\dots,Y_{in_i} \ \text{i.i.d.} \ \sim Exp(\lambda_i)$ with $i=1,\dots, K$ and $n_i$ the size of the $i$-th sample, is there any statistics with analytically ...
Zipfer Zapfeln's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Testing the difference between two Root Mean Square Error values for statistical significance [duplicate]

I would like to compare the predictive power of 2 models. The models are meant to model count data and respective probabilities. I am using two metrics as means of comparison: Root Mean Square Error ...
Astral's user avatar
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