# Questions tagged [inference]

Drawing conclusions about population parameters from sample data. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inference and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_inference

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### Estimation of Variance of Sample Mean under SRS Without Replacement using the data collected under Stratified Random Sampling

I spent hours yesterday trying to figure out a proper explanation for this, but failed to come up with a convincing answer. Assume the data is collected according to stratified random sampling, and ...
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### Analysing Likert scale responses

I have a dataset consisting of Learner's response for Likert scale questions. The data consists of questions from different courses, therefore not all questions belonging to any particular group. ...
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### What is the difference between MVB UMVUE and MVUE.?

Cramer Rao inequality gives MVB and if MVB exist it is MLE. Rao Blackwell gives UMVUE, but isn’t when we have MVB estimator for unbiased it is UMVUE? Then what is MVUE? MVB minimum variance bound ...
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### Interpreting boxplot VS stacked histogram in example

I understand what a boxplot and histogram are supposed to show, but I'm a bit confused on how it is being presented in this graphic printout from R. The picture is taken from Beyond Multiple Linear ...
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### Unbiased estimator of population variance for sampling without replacement

What I wrote below only apply to the situation where we have finite population. I saw many of my friends used sample variance with Bessel's correction $\frac{\sum_i^n (X_i - \bar{X})^2}{n-1}$ to ...
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### Bayesian Model(Write out likelihood and prior)

I am working with a dataset regarding transmission rate for a disease spreading among cattle at different farms during a 5-month period. The goal is to estimate the transmission parameter $\alpha$ ...
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### Applications of "Dose Response" Outside of Biostatistics?

I was reading about a class of models called "Dose Response Models" (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/drda/vignettes/drda.pdf) - in the traditional sense, these are typically used to ...
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### Does the "type" of standard error affect the relationship between the standard errors of standardized vs. unstandardized estimates?

While previous answers explain how to convert between standardized and unstandardized coefficients and their standard errors, it is not clear if this formula applies across different types of standard ...
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### Issue with bounded in probability

I have tried to prove the following problem that I read in the lecture and it seems not transparent to me. Suppose that $Y_{i}$ be independent random variables (with $i=1,2,3, \dotsc$). Each has the ...
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### Post analysis using raw data or SHAP values in Machine learning

Let's say I have SHAP value returned in dataframe for input variables like below ...
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### When does a difference in means not capture the true treatment effects vs a regression with pre-treatment controls?

A question from Gelman - Regression & Other Stories... In answer to my own question...my understanding is that a difference in means should not capture the treatment effect when there are pre-...
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### Bayesian model comparison with systematic error

Two parameters $(x,y)$ were measured for 3 different objects, wielding the following results: $$\{ (x,y) \}= \{ (1,3), (3,5), (5,9) \}$$ Knowing that the error in the estimation of the values $y$ is ...
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### Can somebody help me understand the sentences in more readable expresions?

I was reading a paper about "bayesSimIG" and I have problem in understand the following paragraph.I have read it many times and did a lot of research for it and have understood what each ...
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### Confidence Intervals and Hyptothesis testing

Iam currently reading up on basic statistics and Iam somewhat confused about the computation/inference of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. As far as I have understood there are several ...
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### Why is SATE different to Treatment effect (difference in means)?

A question from Gelman - Regression & Other Stories. This one has me a bit stumped, I've reread sections of the chapter and I'm still not understanding why this is the case. I think the answer is ...
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### The exact distribution of the conditional distribution of the OLS estimator

This is the problem that I have tried figuring it out for a while, and I still need some advice because there is no explicit derivation in the textbook that I have seen so far. The problem looks easy ...
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### Causal Inference for experiment

I'm working through a textbook (Regression and Other Stories) and have come across a particular problem that I am having difficulty convincing myself I understand. I am specifically interested in part ...
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### Motivating use of Bayesian splines in excess mortality estimation

I'm reading this paper estimating excess deaths induced by the pandemic. That is, roughly, it constructs a model to estimate how many deaths (from all causes) would have occurred if the pandemic had ...
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### Statistical Inference: Definition of contrast function

Reading a paper recently regarding results on parameter estimation and I came across the terminology "contrast function" which was a function constructed out of a sample. If I compare it to ...
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### Interpreting coefficient in a Diff-in-Diff (fixed effects model)

I am running a DiD model with fixed effects to find the causal effect of traffic cameras on my outcome variable: share of car accidents of total accidents per neighborhood. The treatment, road cameras,...
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### Estimating Standard Deviation from sample mean, median and quartiles

I've been trying to estimate the standard deviation from a sample with N = 8149. I've seen a few alternatives to perform this and they all use the IQR. Here's the sample data I have: ...
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### "De-meaning" or "Differencing the mean of..." in mathematical term

In a standard regression literature, the following terms are used almost interchangeably and are used also loosely: "De-meaning the equation gives..." "Differencing the mean of the ...