# Questions tagged [inference]

Drawing conclusions about population parameters from sample data. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inference and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_inference

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### How to interpret a QQ plot

I am working with a small dataset (21 observations) and have the following normal QQ plot in R: Seeing that the plot does not support normality, what could I infer about the underlying distribution? ...
32k views

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### Explanatory variables may bias predictions

I' m asking this question out of sheer curiosity, my teacher was not able to explain it. If I'm using logistic regression with categorical variables they are coded like {1,2,3}. I guess it wouldn't ...
7k views

### Probability and Sampling distribution

Would you please explain me the difference between Probability distribution and Sampling distribution easily ? Is that the difference : in probability distribution we have probability for every ...
6k views

### What is a good, convincing example in which p-values are useful?

My question in the title is self explanatory, but I would like to give it some context. The ASA released a statement earlier this week “on p-values: context, process, and purpose”, outlining various ...
657 views

### Are we frequentists really just implicit/unwitting Bayesians?

For a given inference problem, we know that a Bayesian approach usually differ in both form and results from a fequentist approach. Frequentists (usually includes me) often point out that their ...
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### Do the pdf and the pmf and the cdf contain the same information?

Do the pdf and the pmf and the cdf contain the same information? For me the pdf gives the whole probability to a certain point(basically the area under the probability). The pmf give the probability ...
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### Why trace of $I−X(X′X)^{-1}X′$ is $n-p$ in least square regression when the parameter vector $\beta$ is of p dimensions?

In the model ${y} = X \beta + \epsilon$, we could estimate $\beta$ using the normal equation： $$\hat{\beta} = (X'X)^{-1}X'y,$$ and we could get $$\hat{y} = X \hat{\beta}.$$ The vector of residuals ...