# Questions tagged [interpretation]

Refers generally to making substantive conclusions from the results of a statistical analysis.

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473k views

### What is the meaning of p values and t values in statistical tests?

After taking a statistics course and then trying to help fellow students, I noticed one subject that inspires much head-desk banging is interpreting the results of statistical hypothesis tests. It ...
157k views

### How to understand degrees of freedom?

From Wikipedia, there are three interpretations of the degrees of freedom of a statistic: In statistics, the number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a ...
50k views

### Interpretation of log transformed predictor and/or response

I'm wondering if it makes a difference in interpretation whether only the dependent, both the dependent and independent, or only the independent variables are log transformed. Consider the case of <...
24k views

### Interpretation of simple predictions to odds ratios in logistic regression

I'm somewhat new to using logistic regression, and a bit confused by a discrepancy between my interpretations of the following values which I thought would be the same: exponentiated beta values ...
171k views

### Interpretation of R's lm() output

The help pages in R assume I know what those numbers mean, but I don't. I'm trying to really intuitively understand every number here. I will just post the output and comment on what I found out. ...
50k views

### Removal of statistically significant intercept term increases $R^2$ in linear model

In a simple linear model with a single explanatory variable, $\alpha_i = \beta_0 + \beta_1 \delta_i + \epsilon_i$ I find that removing the intercept term improves the fit greatly (value of $R^2$ ...
10k views

### Interpreting QQplot - Is there any rule of thumb to decide for non-normality?

I have read enough threads on QQplots here to understand that a QQplot can be more informative than other normality tests. However, I am inexperienced with interpreting QQplots. I googled a lot; I ...
42k views

### X and Y are not correlated, but X is significant predictor of Y in multiple regression. What does it mean?

X and Y are not correlated (-.01); however, when I place X in a multiple regression predicting Y, alongside three (A, B, C) other (related) variables, X and two other variables (A, B) are significant ...
71k views

### How to interpret coefficients in a Poisson regression?

How can I interpret the main effects (coefficients for dummy-coded factor) in a Poisson regression? Assume the following example: ...
6k views

### Interpretation of interaction term

I have a model: $$\ln({\rm earnings}) = a+b_1{\rm female}+b_2{\rm white}+b_3{\rm female}\times{\rm white}$$ ${\rm female}$ and ${\rm white}$ are dummy variables. I have interpreted $b_1$ and $b_2$: ...
38k views

### What is the intuitive reason behind doing rotations in Factor Analysis/PCA & how to select appropriate rotation?

My Questions What is the intuitive reason behind doing rotations of factors in factor analysis (or components in PCA)? My understanding is, if variables are almost equally loaded in the top ...
89k views

### Interpretation of R's output for binomial regression

I'm quite new on this with binomial data tests, but needed to do one and now I´m not sure how to interpret the outcome. The y-variable, the response variable, is binomial and the explanatory factors ...
4k views

### Understanding p-value

I know that there are lots of materials explaining p-value. However the concept is not easy to grasp firmly without further clarification. Here is the definition of p-value from Wikipedia: The p-...
13k views

### What does “all else equal” mean in multiple regression?

When we do multiple regressions and say we are looking at the average change in the $y$ variable for a change in an $x$ variable, holding all other variables constant, what values are we holding the ...
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### Can I interpret the inclusion of a quadratic term in logistic regression as indicating a turning point?

In a Logistic Regression with linear and quadratic terms only, if I have a linear coefficient $\beta_1$ and quadratic coefficient $\beta_2$, can I say that that there is turning point of the ...
6k views

### How to extract information from a scatterplot matrix when you have large N, discrete data, & many variables?

I'm playing around with the breast cancer dataset and created a scatterplot of all attributes to get an idea for which ones have the most effect on predicting the class ...
8k views

### How to interpret a box plot?

I have some data in which there are 5 categorical explanatory variables (concern, breath, weath, sleep, act) and 1 continuous response variable (...
78k views

### Interpretation of biplots in principal components analysis

I came across this nice tutorial: A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using R. Chapter 13. Principal Component Analysis: The Olympic Heptathlon on how to do PCA in R language. I don't understand the ...
14k views

### Analysis of Kullback-Leibler divergence

Let us consider the following two probability distributions ...
3k views

### When are confidence intervals useful?

If I understand correctly a confidence interval of a parameter is an interval constructed by a method which yields intervals containing the true value for a specified proportion of samples. So the '...
15k views

### Interpreting 2D correspondence analysis plots

I've been searching the internet far and wide... I have yet to find a really good overview of how to interpret 2D correspondence analysis plots. Could someone offer some advice on interpreting the ...
16k views

### Interpretation of ordinal logistic regression

I ran this ordinal logistic regression in R: mtcars_ordinal <- polr(as.factor(carb) ~ mpg, mtcars) I got this summary of the model: ...
29k views

### Anova from R output interpretation

I have a question on how a statistician would normally interpret an anova output. Say I have anova output from R. ...
12k views