# Questions tagged [interpretation]

Refers generally to making substantive conclusions from the results of a statistical analysis.

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### Physical/pictoral interpretation of higher-order moments

I'm preparing a presentation about parallel statistics. I plan to illustrate the formulas for distributed computation of the mean and variance with examples involving center of gravity and moment of ...
51k views

### Interpreting log likelihood

I have difficulty interpreting some results. I am doing an hierarchical related regression with ecoreg. If I enter the code I receive output with odds ratios, ...
352 views

### How do sufficiency statistics help in the interpretation of regression results?

One of the results why canonical link functions are widely used in GLMs is the existence of sufficiency statistics for the regression parameters, which in turn allow for: ... minimal sufficient ...
4k views

### Interpreting odds ratios less than 1 with 3-category outcome

I have a 3-category ordered outcome (food consumption: 1=no food, 2=less food, 3=more food) and a 3-category ordered predictor (food exposure: 3=no time, 2= less time, 1= more time- whereby 3=no time ...
652 views

### Interpreting Random Effects for Poisson GLMM

There seem to be a few answers for normally distributed models, but after some searching I could only come across this page for Poisson mixed models. I want to be certain I am interpreting the random ...
630 views

### Interpretation of glmmPQL() spatial autocorrelation output

I am modeling binominal data with random effects and spatial autocorrelation using MASS::glmmPQL(). Plotting the residual semivariogram of a model fit without ...
435 views

### How do I interpret the random intercepts of a multilevel mixed-effects model?

I am using a three-level mixed-effects model in which: individuals (level 1) are nested in primary sampling units (PSUs) or enumeration areas (level 2) which in turn are nested in countries (...
2k views

### Interpretation of biplot in PCA

Blue points all appear in the lower right-hand quadrant in the plane formed by the first two principal components. Is it a good interpretation of the biplot (right panel) to say that blue points are ...
2k views

### Interpreting MANOVA and redundancy analysis of a canonical correlation analysis

I have done a canonical correlation analysis using the American Community Survey Dataset. The analysis is done between Ancestry and ...
394 views

### Confidence interval for proportions

I have some data like this: id pop var 1 593 51 2 592 31 3 346 20 4 1214 70 5 1063 66 6 1370 71 each ...
39 views

### Best textbook on philosophical background of interpretations (for beginners)

I'm looking for the best textbook teaches basics of statistics for a general researcher (undergraduate) without totally ignoring the mathematical proofs and theories while the main emphasizes is on ...
779 views

### Principal components: Can I interpret PCA as essentially a change of basis

I was hoping that someone could simply validate or correct my interpretation of Principal Components Analysis. There are a lot of questions on this site about Principal Components analysis--some ...
753 views

### Scale of the correlation coefficient: is “r = .40 is twice as strong as r = .20” allowed/correct?

Some people recommend the following procedure to calculate the mean of several correlation coefficients: transform the coefficients by Fisher's $z$ transformation, calculate the mean of that, and ...
80 views

### all regressions: coefficients interpretation

good morning to all, I open this topic with the intention of being useful to me but also to many in my situational. I would like to clarify the "interpretation" of the coefficients in the regression. ...
4k views

### How to interpret lsmeans output for my lmer model?

I've defined an lmer model in R with 2 fixed effects, 2 random intercepts and a random slope: ...
188 views

### Determining the effect of number of likes

Let's say I have marketing data and I need to determine how effective the marketing is. The marketing strategy is to publish facebook posts at inconsistent intervals. The goal is to see how the ...
2k views

### Tweedie P Value Interpretation

From Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tweedie_distribution) we know that The Tweedie distributions include a number of familiar distributions as well as some unusual ones, each being ...
675 views

### Interpretation of log transformed predictor in negative binomial regression

I mainly want to make sure that I'm making the correct interpretation here. I built a negative binomial regression model predicting a count variable. There was evidence of overdispersion or I would ...
1k views

### Geometric Interpretation of Softmax Regression

I'm writing a series of blog posts on the basics of machine learning, just for fun, mostly to validate my understanding of Andrew Ng's class. As I'm currently studying generalized linear models (GLMs),...
521 views

### Interpretation of mixed model with repeated measures

I have performed the following experiment: Two genotype groups of two different ages were monitored in the presence of three drugs one after the other. So, each subject after a control period received ...
4k views

### GEE (or GLMM) in SPSS: Interpreting outputs and model selection

I am attempting to analyze my (experimental psych) data in SPSS, and I have a few questions regarding the kind of analysis I should be using (GEE or GLMM), how I should be interpreting the output, and ...
357 views

### Is this interpretation of prediction intervals correct?

I have a regression model relating to a ''normal'' population. If a new observation which corresponds to point $x$ is outside the prediction interval at $x$, do I have a reason to suspect the new ...
20 views

### How to interpret coefficients from rank based regression (Rfit package in R)?

I need to examine the relationship between an outcome variable (continuous) and a number of predictors. Since my data is non-normally distributed (i.e. the residuals from the multiple linear ...
33 views

### Three-Way Anova: What does a significant three way interaction tell you conceptually?

Here's a made up example. Let's say that I have two factors, energy drink (Gatorade vs water) and gender (male and female). The outcome variable is mile time. A significant two way interaction between ...
33 views

### What's the rationale behind a normality test followed by a $t$-test?

Correct me if I'm wrong, but from my understanding, the standard procedure of testing whether data from an unknown source have a specific mean is to (a) perform a normality test to see if the data are ...
14 views

### Interpreting standard errors of linear regression with logged dependent variable

I'm running a linear regression with a logged dependent variable. This is the only variable in the model that is logged. For interpretation, I've exponentiated the coefficients, subtracted one, and ...
70 views

### Interaction is not significant in ANOVA, but significant in Regression, which is nonsense

Variables that I have: randomization (categorical): control / low / high sesdummy (categorical): low / high fairness (continuous) I wanted to see if there was an interaction effect between two ...
73 views

### What is the geometric meaning of correlation matrix

I recently read this article explaining the geometric meaning of covariance matrix. http://www.visiondummy.com/2014/04/geometric-interpretation-covariance-matrix/ My question is : is there an ...
59 views

### An alternative definition of the $p$-value

As we know, $p$-values are uniformly distributed under $H_0$. This urges me to ask if this constitutes a valid (re-)definition of the $p$-value. $p$-value - A statistic with a uniform distribution ...
152 views

### How to interpret a two-way interaction in a 3-way interaction model

I am trying to predict y with variables a, b and c. I have two models and I get different results depending on how I fit my model. Model A is the simpler model, in which I exclude variable c. In ...
176 views

### GP: How to select a model for a classification task, based in overall accuracy and log-marginal likelihood?

I have fitted a Gaussian Process (GP) to perform a binary classification task. The dataset is balanced, so I have an equal number of samples with 0/1 label for the training. The covariance function ...
232 views

### Marginal effect of variables - Logistic regression, Boosted tree, and other tree-based models

Assuming I have a classification problem where I have binary dependent variable Y and independent variables X1-X10. The X variables are categorical. Say we are interested in the marginal effect of ...
1k views

### Help with using variables as ordered factors/how to read lme4 output

I am quite new to R and also to LME statistics and would greatly appreciate any help. I am trying to figure out whether I have changed the variables in my study accordingly, and how to read the ...
531 views

### How to measure variable importance in a GAM model?

For concreteness: ...
359 views

### Interpretation of double log model when variables are ratios

I am running a double log model. My dependent variable is GDP growth per capita. My independent variables are military expenditure as share of GDP and gross capital formation as share of GDP. All ...
521 views

### What are the benefits of the z-score interpretation of probit regression coefficients?

Logit vs. probit is often a big debate. Many prefer logit simply because the coefficients can easily be converted into odds ratios, which are "more intuitive" to interpret than the z-score ...
370 views

### Ordered logistic Regression with categorical variables

I am conducting a regression. There is an ordinal dependent variable (ordered from 1 to three) and some categorical independent variables (each of them includes several items). I adopted the ...
530 views

### Interpretation of inverse ILR-transformed coefficients from a compositional data analysis

I wish to do regression analysis on compositional data. But whatever I've learnt from books and blogs that I need to use transformations like centered log ratio (clr...
184 views

### Interpretation of probability in geostatistics

In geostatistics, the concept of a random field is used in e.g. Kriging. Hence, at each point in your study area, there is a probability distribution. Should this probability be given a frequentistic ...
330 views

### Interpret credible intervals / HPD following posterior sampling

I am unsure on how to interpret credible interval results. How can credible intervals consist of negative numbers when the collected data only consists of positive numbers? I would expect that, given ...
205 views

### Build a model with bimodal output

Let's say that you want to build a model that predicts two possible outcomes with a probability for each. To be clear, i'm not talking about a problem where the target variable is binary and you want ...
58 views

### Still confused regarding interpretation of effect size given highly significant p-values

Suppose you have 3 groups, 'Atheists' ($n_1=102$), 'Nones' ($n_2=178$) and 'Religionists' ($n_3 = 390$). You want to find out if there is a difference in the experience of meaningfulness between these ...
47 views

### Mismatch Between the Parameters of a Logistic Regression in R and My Computed Parameters

By converting and by trying to interpret the parameters of a logistic regression ran in R, I just find them to be overestimated. Therefore I tried to compute them myself but I can not obtain the same ...
735 views

### Bootstrap logistic regression with rare events and rare outcomes and rare predictors

I am recently using bootstrap for statistical inference and confidence interval building in the setting of regression, especially logistic regression. In many works I've been doing I find that using ...
55 views

### Are there any circumstances under which a confidence interval can be interpreted as a likelihood interval? What are they?

I read the answers provided to the question "are all values in a 95% confidence interval equally likely?". These answers raise questions for me regarding interpretation. I have read that under ...
314 views

### How does the presence of factors affect the interpretation of the other coefficients in a regression?

The answer to Interpreting coefficients of an interaction between categorical and continuous variable contains a phrase that seems to have some significant impact on how coefficients are interpreted ...
610 views

### OLS with ordinal dependent variable - do the coefficients mean anything?

I currently read a paper in which the author has asked people 3 different questions regarding their life satisfaction, all of which are to be rated on a four point scale: 1) very low, 2) low, 3) high, ...
83 views

### What does a linear/geometric probability in time series mean?

In some discrete time series I analyzed I'd like to interpret whether there is a meaning to the observed probability model. The data is some discrete time series with a population of objects which at ...
### How to interpret Pearson's $r$, Spearman's $\rho$, Cramér's $\phi_{c}$ and Cramér's $V$ correctly?
Is it right that both Cramér's $\phi_{c}$ (and consequently Cramér's $V$ as well) are similar to the Pearson correlation coefficient, $r$, (and so, to Spearman's $\rho$) in its interpretation, as it ...