# Questions tagged [likert]

Classically, a Likert scale was composed of the sum of many Likert items (ordinal ratings of the amount of agreement with a statement), where all the items were equally valid. Today the term sometimes is used synonymously with 'ordinal rating scale' (which may be based on only 1 item).

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### What are good basic statistics to use for ordinal data?

I have some ordinal data gained from survey questions. In my case they are Likert style responses (Strongly Disagree-Disagree-Neutral-Agree-Strongly Agree). In my data they are coded as 1-5. I don'...
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### Under what conditions should Likert scales be used as ordinal or interval data?

Many studies in the social sciences use Likert scales. When is it appropriate to use Likert data as ordinal and when is it appropriate to use it as interval data?
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### Is Amazon's "average rating" misleading?

If I understand correctly, book ratings on a 1-5 scale are Likert scores. That is, a 3 for me may not necessarily be a 3 for someone else. It's an ordinal scale IMO. One shouldn't really average ...
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### Is there Factor analysis or PCA for ordinal or binary data?

I have completed the principal component analysis (PCA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), treating data with likert scale (5-level responses: none, a little, ...
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### Group differences on a five point Likert item

Following on from this question: Imagine that you want to test for differences in central tendency between two groups (e.g., males and females) on a 5-point Likert item (e.g., satisfaction with life: ...
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### Visualizing Likert Item Response Data

What are good ways to visualize set of Likert responses? For example, a set of items inquiring about the importance of X to one's decisions about A, B, C, D, E, F & G? Is there something better ...
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### Visualizing Likert responses using R or SPSS

I have 82 respondents in 2 groups (43 in Group A and 39 in Group B) that completed a survey of 65 Likert questions each ranging from 1 – 5 (strongly agree - strongly disagree). I therefore have a ...
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### A 6th response option ("I don't know") was added to a 5-point Likert scale. Is the data lost?

I need a little bit of help salvaging the data from a questionnaire. One of my colleagues applied a questionnaire, but inadvertently, instead of using the original 5-point Likert scale (strongly ...
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### Factor analysis of questionnaires composed of Likert items

I used to analyse items from a psychometric point of view. But now I am trying to analyse other types of questions on motivation and other topics. These questions are all on Likert scales. My initial ...
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### Is it appropriate to treat n-point Likert scale data as n trials from a binomial process?

I've never liked how people typically analyze data from Likert scales as if error were continuous & Gaussian when there are reasonable expectations that these assumptions are violated at least at ...
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### Can one validly reduce the numbers of items in a published Likert-scale?

[edits made in response to feedback- thanks :-) ] Doh! More edits! Sorry! Hello- I am doing some rather rough and ready data collection with a survey sent out to healthcare staff using a published ...
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### Spearman's or Pearson's correlation with Likert scales where linearity and homoscedasticity may be violated

I am wanting to run correlations on a number of measurements where Likert scales were used. Looking at the scatterplots it appears the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity may have been ...
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### How to interpret this PCA biplot coming from a survey of what areas people are interested in?

Background: I asked hundreds of participants in my survey how much they are interested in selected areas (by five point Likert scales with 1 indicating "not interested" and 5 indicating "interested"). ...
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### Treating ordinal variables as continuous for regression problems

In the social sciences I have encountered that it is common to treat ordinal variables as continuous, for example variables originating from rating or Likert scales (strongly disagree, disagree, agree,...
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### Statistical significance of changes over time on a 5-point Likert item

Context: I have two data sets from the same questionnaire run over two years. Each question is measured using a 5-Likert scale. Q1: Coding scheme At the moment, I have coded my responses on a [0, 1]...
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### Which tests can I use to analyze dependent likert-type data?

In a survey, where students were presented various stimuli, after each stimulus they were asked to rate the following: Quality, on a five-point scale from "Excellent" to "Bad", let's say $Q$ ...
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### Is 0 a valid value in a Likert scale?

I have carried out my pilot study on language learning motivation using a 6 point Likert scale but from 0 (strongly disagree) to 5 (very much agree). I noticed a colleague in his survey used 1 to 6. ...
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### How to test for differences between medians of multiple Likert items?

In a questionnaire study, we asked respondents to express their attitudes towards how different winter climate factors such as snow, slipperiness might affect their choice to walk and cycle to work. ...
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### Whether to use original or reverse coded items in factor analysis?

I am currently analyzing data from a 34-item Likert scale. I already recoded the negatively stated variables in SPSS as different variables. I'm about to do a factor analysis. Should I use the ...
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### Is the sum of a number of ordinal variables still ordinal?

I have performed a survey where I have a number of questions which can be answered Strongly Agree, Agree etc. to Strongly Disagree. Some of the questions have been designed to measure the same thing. ...
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### Based on factor loadings (in factor analysis) can we give unequal weights to Likert scale items?

After gathering data, we compute score of any Likert (summative) scale (previously identified as factor in factor analysis) by adding up its individual item scores (and maybe dividing the sum by the ...
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### How to compare Likert scales with varying number of categories across time?

Let Year 1 be last year's data and Year 2 be this year's data. Suppose that in Year 1, you had a likert scale that was 1-9 (Categorical/Ordinal) and that in Year 2, for the same question you had a ...
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### Whether to use EFA or PCA to assess dimensionality of a set of Likert items

This follows on from my previous question on assessing reliability. I designed a questionnaire (six 5-points Likert items) to evaluate the attitude of a group of users toward a product. I would like ...
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### How to simulate Likert-scale data in R? [closed]

I want to do a Monte-Carlo experiment to check my theoretical finding regarding Likert-scale data. I want to have random test results with N participants, where every question has 5 answers: (0,1,2,3 ...
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### How to correlate ordinal and nominal variables in SPSS?

I have imported an Excel document in SPSS which contains around 500 entries. Three columns are defined, using Likert scales. I have substituted textual labels of these scales with numerical values ...
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### Small n: non-parametric or parametric tests?

I am in a situation where I have sample with $n=19$, and the the data are not normally distributed (according to the results of a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) for all the variables. The data were ...
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### How do you estimate correlations between ordinal and binary data in SPSS?

I'm struggling with my lab report. I have a questionnaire which contains Likert responses (1-7) as well as questions that require only yes or no answers. I want to see if there is a correlation ...
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### How to conduct a factor analysis on questionnaire data based on 30 items in three blocks?

I have a questionnaire with 30 questions divided into 3 blocks of 10 questions each. Each question is answered with a number 1 to 10 and then an average of them all is calculated. I need to know how ...
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### How to judge if 5 point Likert scale data are normally distributed?

I have read that the t-test is used when the population is normally distributed. How can I determine if my data are normal given that I am using 5-point Likert scale with a sample size of 100? What ...
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### Assessing and testing inter-rater agreement with kappa statistic on a set of binary and Likert items?

I am trying to calculate inter-rater reliability scores for 10 survey questions (on which there were 2 raters)--seven questions are binary (yes/no), and 3 are Likert-scale questions. Should inter-...
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### How did Likert calculate sigma values in his original 1932 paper?

The five-point response list (e.g. "strongly approve"; "approve"; "undecided"; "disapprove", "strongly disapprove") for gathering data about attitudes - commonly but perhaps incorrectly called a ...
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### Whether to test items for normality (and transform) when performing confirmatory factor analysis on a set of scales?

I received the following email: My project involves rewording a questionnaire and seeing if the internal reliability and CFA results improve. There are 30 items that are meant to form 4 subscales. ...
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### What is the best way of weighing cardinal scores and Likert scale scores to create a composite score?

I can't thank the experts enough for their clarifications. One final question following my earlier posts on forming coomposite variables here, here, and here. If I have measured some variables as ...
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### Inter-rater agreement for Likert scale

What is the best inter-rater agreement test for Likert scale type questions? As far as I see, Cronbach's $\alpha$ is for internal consistency, or it shows how good items are related to describe the ...
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### How to combine likert items into a single variable

I'm doing my first research and collected quite a large number of response using a questionnaire. In this questionnaire, the dependent variable is assessed using 4 questions with a 5-Likert scale (...
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### Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) for ratings with a lot of ties

I have read that Kendall W should be avoided when it comes to deal with non-rankings especially for rating scales which tend to have a lot of ties. Yet posts here seem to suggest it for ratings. As ...
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### How to compare response to same question asked at different time points?

I asked survey respondents about two points in time, and asked participants the degree to which they "agree", a typical Likert-style question. For example, as if I had asked "Before Obama became ...
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### Do the residual plot and QQ plot look normal?

I am doing linear mixed model and would like to check the assumptions using residual plot and QQ plot. Here is my code: ...
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### Ordinal regression vs. summated score

It seems quite common to see scientific researches using a summated score to represent an overall scale that consists of many individual scale items (ex. Likert scale items). I assume that regular ...
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### Likert scale question divided into different group. How to calculate mean of different group?

I want to do a survey to determine how satisfied the (16) employees are with the company training program. The survey has 30 questions, each using a 5 point Likert scale for responses. The questions ...
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### How can I do a correlation between Likert scale and an ordinal categorical measure?

I have a 5 pt Likert scale and a measure of time on the internet e.g. 1= less than 10 mins, 2=10-30 etc as well as number of SNS contacts (1=10-30, etc). I would like to estimate their correlation but ...
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### Analysing pre-and-post intervention study with anonymous responses

The study I am analysing is a pre-and-post intervention questionnaire of students' views before and after studying a module. The questionnaire was distributed in three different geographical ...
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### Hypothesis testing with a response scale of "1, 2, 3, 4, or not applicable"

Let's imagine I'm testing a new drug that purports to reduce the effect of a hangover when the drug is administered shortly before an episode of heavy drinking. On Friday night, I stake out the ...
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### Designing and validating a Likert-type scale with odd or even response categories

As part of an advisory team in my educational institution for undergraduate nurses, I (among others) have been assigned to design a questionnaire that will assess students' and academic staff's ...
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### Can my LIkert data say anything about my intervention's effectiveness? [closed]

I have Likert data from a survey that unfortunately I did not get to design, and I would like to see if there are any ways to assess if an intervention is having an effect (or rather, to assess ...
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### How should I visualize my data?

I've conducted a survey of 20 questions using a 5-item Likert scale in which 10 people participated. In each question, the participants were presented with two versions of a picture and asked to pick ...
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### How can Factor Analysis be used to remove questions from a survey?

Suppose I have a psychological questionnaire asking 30 questions about a person's mental health (on a Likert-scale 1-7). These 30 questions fall into 7 separate, but correlated categories. The ...
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### Correlation between different Likert scales

I use a likert type questionnaire (7 point scale) in order to measure four variables: usefulness, ease of use, ease of learning and satisfaction. Hence in the questionnaire I have four different sub ...