Questions tagged [machine-translation]

Machine translation (MT) is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one language to another.

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Teacher Forcing in RNNs

I'm reading about teacher forcing for neural translation applications here and here , but I am a little confused on the method. Why does teacher forcing speed up training? Also why in the Kaggle link ...
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Two Datasets from Two companies

Have Two Datasets Collected from Two Different companies (A & B) using Same Questionnaire at same time. Same Dependent & independent Variables. Company A total Respondents = 1232 & Company ...
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Neural Text Simplification with no appropriate dataset

I'm currently starting a research project focused on NLP. One of the steps involved in this project will be the development of a text simplification system, probably using a neural encoder-decoder ...
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How does recall help precision overcome “length-related problems?”

I'm reading the paper on the Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) metric BLEU: A Method for Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation (Papineni et al., 2002) and had a question regarding a quote ...
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Is statistical machine translation similar in many ways to Hidden Markov Model? How can we justify it?

Came across this question but didn't know the correct answer, if anyone could clear this out would be of great help. 'If we say we Statistical machine translation is similar in many ways to Hidden ...
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Why can't we calculate p(e|f) directly from corpus?

In SMT, a document is translated according to the probability distribution $p(e|f)$ that a string $e$ in the target language (for example, English) is the translation of a string $f$ in the source ...
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15 views

Seq2Seq Machine Translation Question

I'm reading through Pytorch's NLP from Scratch: Translation with a Sequence to Sequence Network and Attention, and I am a bit confused on the Preparing Training Data section, particularly: ...
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25 views

Why do we feed the target sentence to the model during transformers training?

Going through the famous notebook: Annotated transformers to be found here, I noticed that during the training, the model is fed the target sentence. If the model is fed the target sentence from the ...
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Training data preparation for NMT models

I'm building a NMT model and I have some questions about the preparation of training pairs. Background: I have a list of sentences that have similar semantic meanings and I would like to make pairs ...
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What feature space is used in transformer networks for machine translation?

Title is the question. The papers I've read, e.g. "Attention is All You Need" fail to specify exactly what word embeddings are used in these machine translation networks. In most cases ...
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Training and testing transformer model from scratch

As you know, transformers are one of the strongest model in the field of NLP and machine translation. I know there are many resources, but I still could not find a good tutorial teaching how to use ...
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What metric should I use for evaluating a reading order of text tokens given the correct ordering?

Given an ordering of tokens extracted from a document with a ground truth ordering available. What would be the correct way to evaluate the ordering? I took a look at some Machine Translation ...
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Attention Mechanisms and Alignment Models in Machine Translation

From the paper that introduced attention mechanisms (Bahdanau et al 2014: Neural Machine Translation by Jointly Learning to Align and Translate), it seems that the translating part is the regular RNN/...
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41 views

How to compute classification accuracy for machine translation?

I looked online and am unable to find the proper classification metric for machine translation problems. Let's the predicted output is: "My name John" and the ground truth is "My name is John" I ...
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How does Transformer use BPE?

I'm trying to re-implement Transformer on my own but I'm struggling on the input encoding. It seems that the original paper(Attention is All You Need) mentioned that they use Byte-pair Encoding to ...
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Is there any way to train a multi-label machine translation model?

Generally, machine translation is translating a sentence from an original language to a target language. However, for a specific origin sentence, the target sentence is not unique. Now, I have ...
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Question about dimensions of NMT with attention and image captioning with attention

I have been checking out models with attention in those tutorials below. https://www.tensorflow.org/tutorials/text/nmt_with_attention and https://www.tensorflow.org/tutorials/text/...
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Tacking out of vocab words in neural machine translation with fasttext

I am trying to tackle out of vocab words in my machine translation model build using Tensorflow's official implementation of NMT . I am very much confused how to do it since I am new to NLP. I tried ...
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Matrices K and V in the decoder part in the transformer model?

There is something I do not get in the illustrated transformer article from Jay Alamar (http://jalammar.github.io/illustrated-transformer/). In the decoder side paragraph, he said The encoder start ...
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Sequence to Sequence model not training

I am working on a sequence to sequence chatbot model based on the Tensorflow NMT tutorial for a project. I have a database of about 15 million replies and around 3 million individual words. It is an ...
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Machine Translation: with sufficient parallel data, can we improve even further the performance of the system with the use of monolingual data?

I am trying to find scientific literature that studies if, in a situation in which we already have enough parallel data, the addition of monolingual data can further improve performance. I have not ...
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What toy dataset can be used/made for debugging a neural machine translation system?

I'm looking for something like the scikit-learn sample generators for generating small machine translation datasets that are quick to learn. My goal is to debug a Transformer model and have a quick ...
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How do RNNs used in Machine Translation have the right output length?

For machine translation the length of input and output sequences is mostly different. Typically considering an encoder-decoder architecture is used, how does the output come out to be the right length ...
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What is currently the best way to add a custom dictionary to a neural machine translator that uses the transformer architecture?

It's common to add a custom dictionary to a machine translator to ensure that terminology from a specific domain is correctly translated. For example, the term server should be translated differently ...
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What exactly are keys, queries, and values in attention mechanisms?

How should one understand the keys, queries, and values that are often mentioned in attention mechanisms? I've tried searching online, but all the resources I find only speak of them as if the reader ...
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70 views

Machine translation dataset is actually not parallel

I'm currently working on implementing the Transformer model for machine translation. I'm taking a look at the data that was used in the actual paper and also used by many other implementations ...
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64 views

What exactly does the word “align” mean in the attention model?

I'm reading the famous attention model paper Neural Machine Translation by Jointly Learning to Align and Translate (Bahdanau, Cho, & Bengio, 2014) and I'm having trouble what the exact meaning of "...
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Multi-Head attention mechanism in transformer and need of feed forward neural network

After reading the paper, "Attention is all you need," I have two questions. 1) What is the need of multi-head attention mechanism? Paper says that "Multi-head attention allows the model to jointly ...
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From a deep learning point of view, is there a lower limit on the number of hours of speech needed to train a neural net

From a deep learning practitioner's point of view, is there a lower limit on the number of hours of speech needed to train a neural net to translate speech to text? An estimate from CMU is 3000-5000 ...
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66 views

How does SGD come in the picture for Sequence to Sequence models?

I was learning that seq2seq models (from the deeplearning.ai course) try to maximize: $$ \max_{y} P_{\theta}(y_1 \dots y_{T'} \mid x_1 \dots x_T ) $$ I learned that one way they do it is via beam ...
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What is the intuition behind the positional cosine encoding in the transformer network?

I don't understand how adding the cosine encodings/functions to each of the dimension of the word vector embedding enables the network to "understand" where each word is situated in the sentence. ...
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328 views

Is Length Normalization used in each step of Beam Search?

In Andrew Ng's lesson on refining Beam Search, it seems that Length Normalization is used ONLY AFTER LAST STEP of Beam Search, that is, when the B most probable sequences have been generated. My ...
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How should I choose the Encoder hyperparameters to make its memory state suitable for the Decoder in a Bidirectional Neural Network?

I'm trying to implement Neural Machine Translation following the tutorial on the Tensorflow website here https://www.tensorflow.org/versions/r1.8/tutorials/seq2seq and I was able to build a ...
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Adapt speech recognition for Shakespeare english

We need to be able to search the works of Shakespeare by voice. The way I see it, the goal is if I quote into the microphone: "Yet but three come one more. Two of both kinds make up four. Ere ...
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What are “residual connections” in RNNs?

In Google's paper Google's Neural Machine Translation System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation, it is stated Our LSTM RNNs have $8$ layers, with residual connections between ...
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629 views

Word representation in sequence-to-sequence learning with LSTM

I understand that in case of seq2seq learning for machine translation or question-answer systems one must encode words of sentences. Most approaches do this via word2vec representation where each word ...
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Highest value of machine translation metrics

Does anyone knows the highest and lowest values of the common machine translation metrics $BLEU_{1-4}$, $METEOR$, $ROUGE_{L}$, and $CIDEr$ and $CIDEr-D$? I know that for BLEU is 1, correct? Does the ...
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Why use the cosine distance for machine translation (Mikolov paper)?

I am currently reading the paper "Exploiting Similarities among Languages for Machine Translation" by Mikolov et al. (available here : https://static.googleusercontent.com/media/research.google.com/en/...
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In phrase-based machine translators, how does the program recognize phrases in the corpus text?

I know that a phrase-based statistical machine translator finds the probability of a correct translation by analyzing a bilingual corpus text, and it maps phrases from the one language to phrases in ...
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Was BaiduTrans the first scalable deployment of Neural Machine Translation?

I read these two tweets written on 2016-12-15 by Andrew Ng: Strong desire for global content made China 1st to develop Neural Machine Translation. US lucky to have so much english content […] @...
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811 views

NLTK: odd outputs from bleu_score

For machine translation purposes I use bleu score, which seems to be the validation mechanism of choice (used in the sutskever 2014 sequence-to-sequence). The purpose is to get as high bleu as ...
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203 views

Hessian-Free instead of LSTM for Recurrent Net Machine Translation

Last year, Ilya Sutskever and collaborators came out with a paper about a recurrent LSTM net that learns sequence to sequence mappings for machine translation. It's somewhat surprising that the ...
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Removing human evaluator bias

I am working on machine translation evaluation, and am looking at ratings given by humans who are judging the quality of sentences produced by machine translation systems. The evaluators give fluency ...