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References on simulating a raster with spatial dependence

I've simulated an N-by-N raster in the following way: define a set $S$ containing a finite number $|S| = K$ of possible raster values (in my simulation, $K=3$ and the elements of $S$ are land uses / ...
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How to implement a Gaussian Markov Random field (GMRF) model in R?

I would like to model a (conditional) GMRF using a linear mixed effects model without having grid Data but only a neighbourhood matrix $W$. My model is given by $$Y=X\beta+ \epsilon$$ and the error ...