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Questions tagged [noise]

noise is a term used for the error term in statistical models and in signal processing. It could be white noise, colored noise or otherwise.

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Estimate Data Noise formula in Pythhon [closed]

How can I create the above formula in Python? I would create a function that would take input x (matrix), output y (vector), and weights (vector). Any guidance is appreciated. Many thanks
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Adding noise to existing noise

I have been working on a little project for myself. It involves adding the following noise types to images: Gaussian blur, Salt and Pepper, and Speckle. I know that there exists some fancy formula for ...
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Laplacian noise applications

I would like to know whether Laplacian distribution can be used to model a Poisson noise. I have met this case while checking this book and here what it says (see the picture below) As far as I ...
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1answer
37 views

Median or mode for measurements with erroneous outliers

Background: I am working with real measurements that likely contain two sources of error, (1) measurements that were performed incorrectly, and (2) natural variability of the measured quantity and ...
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Log of cost function converges to 0 and is extremely “noisy”

I'm writing my very first NN algorithm to solve a regression problem. I have a signal I would like to use a NN to find its correlation with eight other signals (along the line as f = f(x1, x2,..., x8))...
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21 views

Maximum level of label noise for binary classification so that dataset is “Learnable”?

Assume we have an imbalanced dataset (minority label frequency 1-20%), where subset of samples have their labels randomly flipped. Now, of all samples with positive label (the minority class) in this ...
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Addings noise to emperical distribution

Say I have the following samples from a joint distribution (note I only have access to the samples and not the functional form of the distribution it self) ...
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1answer
12 views

Is there a good measure of “paternless-ness” in a set of data?

This may be a slightly open-ended question, or even a bad one, but are there any measures of looking at a set of data and seeing whether there is any kind of pattern or not? For some context my ...
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Analyzing 1000s of time-stamped tweets. How to automatically identify spikes in terms?

I have about 30,000 tweets from a corporate customer service account, all harvested according to the Twitter TOC. Naturally, each message is time-stamped and not extremely long. I'm trying to ...
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Timing Jitter of Counter Query … verify hypothesis / noise reduction

I am measuring traffic on an interface every 5 minutes, but the data platform is having an issue with the SNMP data. I think it is caused by timing jitter ... where the data platform queries the ...
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1answer
36 views

Why noise with normal distribution is used as input to GAN?

Why noise with normal distribution is used as input to GAN? What will happen if we will use uniform noise or just random binary vector?
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19 views

Bounding variance of noise in a noisy voting scheme

I am looking at the accuracy of a method of human yes/no voting. Essentially, I have the vote totals for a number of binomial processes, which represent different "elections" this method was ran on. ...
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20 views

On the transition probability distribution of Gaussian Brownian motion

I am having trouble understanding certain aspects of the following derivation. I'll first present it, and then follow up with questions. The derivation is as follows: Consider a random variable $X(t)$...
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35 views

Smoothing time series with non-constant variance

I have a discrete time series $x(t)$ $ t = \{0,\Delta t,2\Delta t\dots\}$ in which every point comes with a confidence value $c(t)$ arising from the measurements. You may think of is as the variance ...
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Error Analysis For Denoising?

I have a collection of noisy audio files and their corresponding "clean" versions. I used some statistical methods like low-pass and high-pass filtering to try and remove the noise in these noisy ...
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Adjustment of the forecast of a time series for the analysis of a system

I have a simulation model of a system which receives a forecast of a time series as input. In my scientific work I would like to examine how the performance of the simulation model behaves in relation ...
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1answer
37 views

What does add Gauss Random Noise mean?

I'm reading a article about LSSVM and in numerical part they created an artificial example and it says: The two features of samples are uniformly distrubuted in $[0,1)$ and $(1,2]$ with 50% of Gauss ...
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28 views

Modeling background noise with a half normal distribution

I'm working with radiation measurement data and have background noise data with $(\mu, \sigma)$ < 1 and all background measurement values >= 0. If I wanted to approximate/model this noise, would a ...
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1answer
64 views

Removing noise using a control sample

I have some measurements of displacement vs time of movement of a particle. Between these measurements, I have some particles that are supposed to not be moving at all (these are the control samples). ...
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How i add uniformly distributed noisy attributes to data set?

I want to add some artificial outliers to my data set by follow same method below. so, how i can add contaminated data statistically to real data set like Pima Indians Diabetes? info: Pima Indians ...
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1answer
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General Advice - Neural Network Optimization for Noisy Label Training

I'm new to Neural Networks. Trying to get some general advice. Multi Class, 3 classes Has noisy labels, with somewhere between 60 and 80 percent accuracy Huge amount of training with the issues ...
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Find plausible peaks in streamed data

i have got a signal of a streamed source which produces values like in the picture. I want to get the "real" peaks (blue circles). But the noisy peaks (red circles) mess up the peak search. The ...
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64 views

How can I reduce the noise of prediction graph? [duplicate]

I am trying to use LSTM to predict a time series data as you can see in the following image, the predicted graphs is very noisy: The original data is looking like this: That I normalized it like ...
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27 views

Modeling of signal with noise near zero

I would like to know if there is a standard formula/representation for handling/modeling something like Gaussian noise near zero. If you have a signal that is always positive which has some noise on ...
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power spectrum density (V**2/Hz) for nonuniform logarithmic array?

I have nonuniform logarithmic time data array which have 1000pts/decade. that means sampling rate is changing in each intervals or decade. How can I calculate and plot power spectrum density (V**2/Hz)...
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RNN outputs noisy predictions

I have an RNN that I've trained and I'm now using to generate new sequences. These sequences are basically discrete state time courses for K different states. The ...
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237 views

Techniques to apply Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to denoise and predict time series

I just started playing with wavelets and have been using this library (https://github.com/rafat/wavelib) to further my understanding and see if 'denoising' the series at all possible levels is ...
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What is the effect of noisy labels in distant-supervision?

I am just learning about distant supervision. I read the paper of Mintz et al. and trying to get some intuition of how the noise influences the classification. My general assumption is, that having ...
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Bayesian vs Frequentist inference in the presence of noisy data

I'm wondering how Bayesian inference and Classical/Frequentist inference fair towards noisy data. I can't seem to find too much literature addressing this issue and it seems the conclusion is usually ...
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1answer
56 views

Recovering a distribution after Gaussian noise is added

I have a large dataset (400k rows) in which I suspect the data has been obfuscated by the addition of a Gaussian distribution. My guess is that some of the data had categorical variables (based on the ...
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2answers
71 views

Sensitivity of regression parameters to noise

How sensitive are the parameters obtained from OLS, logistic or other regression methods to noise ? By noise, I mean minor changes. For e.g. adding a small noise $-1<\Delta<1$ to $\beta_1$ in $...
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54 views

How to perform feature scaling on noise removel process?

i'm working on dataset contain machinery sensor data. each column(feature) represent different sensor data(pressure, temperature, speed, etc) of the machine part. here task is to predict normal ...
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2answers
87 views

differentially private release of histograms (non-negative valued queries)

Two practical questions arise when releasing differentially private histograms/counts via addition of Laplace/Gaussian noise: 1) Is the result of noise addition truncated/rounded (since we know that ...
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57 views

Noise reduction with known noise distribution

I have a time signal with a known noise distribution parameters (gaussian, sd is known). I would like to estimate the true value statistically and in the best case obtain a confidence interval. As I ...
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89 views

Prediction of noisy target variable

The target variable for my regression problem has a very high noise, so measurement error is very high and trends can only be seen in longer time periods. What are good approaches to address this ...
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2answers
168 views

Regression algorithm on [0,1] with lots of mislabeled data

I have a training set mapping some Likert-scale variables (integers between 1 and 7, rescaled to real numbers between 0 and 1) to predict a continuous variable between 0 and 1. The data set is ...
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1answer
76 views

Apply 3 sigma formula in gamma distribution?

Let say i have some data that follows gamma distribution, and i calculated the Mean and Standard deviation of the gamma distribution. I also know that there are some outliers(Noise) in the data i ...
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1answer
505 views

Noise and Outliers in DBSCAN

Why are noise and outliers treated as the same concept in DBSCAN (density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise)?
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1answer
366 views

Sum of Bernoulli random variables with Gaussian noise

This relates to a question asked recently where (one of the edits of) the question asked what happens when a sum of Bernoulli random variables has some form of noise on the probability parameter. ...
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3answers
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How can I understand the concept of a noise in machine learning?

In Bishop's book, one of the first examples is shown here Essentially, the data $x$ are randomly generated, and $t$ are generated by running $x$ through a function $\sin(2\pi x)$, then Gaussian ...
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1answer
242 views

Calculate threshold value for Poisson distributed noise

I need to calculate a threshold value to get rid of Poisson distributed noise in an image to perform a cluster analysis on the image. The image is the representation of a signal, whose datapoints ...
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1answer
284 views

Adding noise to time series data to increase training data

I am dealing with a weekly time series forecasting problem and I am currently investigating the use of an LSTM to make a multi-step forecast for a univariate time series. I actually have a ...
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Using a neural network for a regression problem, where the model to be learned suffers from awgn

I have currently a neural network to learn a (relatively non complex) system model (vector regression). Its problem is that the outputs of the system suffer from arbitry additional white gaussian ...
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1answer
41 views

Incorporating noise into machine learning models?

Usually, in machine learning textbooks the $X$ dataset and the target $y$ are defined with exact values. How about the case if the values of both $X$ and $y$ have noises: for instance, we only know ...
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39 views

Sum of correlated non-Gaussian random variables with same distribution as individual terms

Let's say there is a sum $s$ of $N$ zero-mean correlated random variables $\{x_i\}$: $$ s = x_1 + x_2 + \ldots +x_N, $$ where the correlations $C_{ij} = \mathbb E[ x_i x_j]$ are known. Assume that ...
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2answers
60 views

What is the probability that sample variance decreases by adding random Gaussian noise to the variable?

If we assume WLOG that our variable X has mean zero (mean-centered), then this can be stated $Pr \bigg(\sum x^2 > \sum (x-n)^2 \bigg)$ for some random variable $n$ distributed under $N \sim N(0, \...
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1answer
37 views

How to remove cofounding effect on a variable?

I'm working in a team that is collecting data by bicycle : We have biometric t-shirts that measure our ventilation rate. The problem is that during the last data collection, participants used masks to ...
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1answer
13 views

Supervised learning with error-range in labels?

I am working in a problem where labels have an error range (we know the range). For instance, a label can be expressed as $y_i \pm e_i$ with $e_i$ is the error range for the label of the instance $i^{...
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1k views

“Add White Gaussian Noise with SNR” vs. “Add 5% Gaussian Noise”

I have a noise-free dataset which is a vector of numbers, $\mathbf{d}$, with length $N$. I want to "add noise" to this data. My understanding is that there are two ways to do this. 1) Add some ...
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Formula to detect non uniformity noise

I have this line profile, how is the best way to detect this kind of non uniformity? I must detect a sudden change, as opposed to the last section that decreases slowly.. But the sudden difference ...